Class Notes (809,452)
Canada (493,718)
History (561)
HIS284H5 (42)
Lecture 2

HIS284H5 Lecture 2: World Together World Apart

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Meghan Marian

World Together, World Apart Chingghis Khan - Takes them 4 years to get from Inner Mongolia to the main city in 1250 Kublai Khan - Son of Chingghis - Defeats the Southern Song Dynasty in 1279, first time that a foreign people had the right to rule China - Founded the Yuan Dynasty o Means Origin of the Universe - Commits to Sinicization (committing himself to become like a Chinese ruler) o Integration to the local culture - Split China between North and South o Southern Chinese considered least trustworthy - Foreigners welcomed and not rejecting them o Arabs, Jews, Marco Polos - Trade roads and ship routes o Most known was the Silk Road - Kublai used Chinese in the government o Used them as lower level officials - Mongols kept their identity though o Their women didn’t bind their feet - Kublai established himself as a warrior and an intellectual o Court known to be a bit of a party ▪ Not very formal but rather lively ▪ Buddhism and Daoism survived well through the Yuan Dynasty o Liked to keep literate and debaters around - Not looking to push harsh punishments o Controlling people through good governance - After 1279, his reign started to decline o Made 2 attacks on Japan that did not go well ▪ Wanted to be seen as a world conquerer rather than a Chinese bureaucrat o 1274, sends 25k men across the sea (Mongols are not sea-faring people) ▪ Defeated by a typhoon o 1281, send 140k men, recruits Korean troops to send ▪ More bad weather rekt them, the winds were called the Kamizake (divine wind) ▪ Japanese saw this evidence as Gods protecting them o Makes an attempt to get South East Asian - Dies 1294, Mongol rule starts to waver - 1308 -1333, incredible amount of instability between Mongol rule - Mongols no longer hold power and is pushed out by the Han people o Mainly because of peasant unrest ▪ Over-taxation ▪ Excess demand for free labour ▪ Unsuccessful military campaigns ▪ General insecurity ▪ Chinese resented a foreign dynasty ▪ All because of a weak Mongol rule - End of the Yuan First Globalization? - Some people believe rise of capitalism is the first time there was a world system - She argues that the Mongols brought along a form of world system - Pax Mongolica o Pax – Latin for peace o The Mongolian Peace - Before the Mongol rise, old world system was separated empires o Old world Asia, Europe, Africa - Mongols connected the entirety of Asia through the use of the Silk Road/Trade routes o (Many, many silk roads. Smaller routes connecting to the main route with oasis systems through out) - When you have one empire ruling all this, less competition between the traders, more security, more safety, less risk o Gives all the people trading for their local kings access to more goods and commodities, creates more demand, more supply o Creates a luxury market. Speciality goods from around the world into new markets - Promotes the growth of cities o Increased markets happened in the cities, so larger markets need more area, people from rural areas drawn to them o Oasis system created a relay system in which centers for people to trade and rest were developed, which grew into cities - Exchanging not just goods but all the technologies and experience that goes with it o Routes get as far as the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf o China bringing in technology for the West and exporting quality goods - Deposit banking at oasis stations o Concept of insurance emerging and also fiscal money emerging ▪ Primarily in Northern Stations because the sand preserves the paper better - Islamic math and astronomy emerges from Africa - Chinese technology and paper making go towards Europe - Pax Mongolica isn’t a forced peace but rather a consequence of being ruled under one empire o A method of communication The Ming Dynasty, 1368 – 1644 - Multiethnic and multireligious - Rulers always looking at ways to expand territory and including people under their rule - Dynasty that extends itself further than ever through sea voyages o Almost overnight, snaps back ▪ Some people see this as China pulling away from a global world ▪ Others see this look back into the past, and focused on tradition, because the scholars understood that the trade would threaten their power structure - Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang, AKA Hongwu emperor o Born to a desperately poor peasant family o Born as a sickly baby ▪ Parents offered him to Buddha to spare his life o When he was 16, his parents and 2 brothers had died to the bubonic plague o Buddhist monks taught him basic literacy but does not have a formal Confucion education ▪ 1352, temple attacked by Yuan and is left alone in the world at 24 o Attracted to paramilitary group named the Red Turbans ▪ He’s physically imposing, tall and big ▪ Super intelligent and fearless ▪ Impresses the leaders and is promoted almost immediately o Givencommand over his own troops o Marries the commanders daughter and takes the commanders place when killed in battle o Troops occupy Nanjing ▪ Important, because
More Less

Related notes for HIS284H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.