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University of Toronto Mississauga
Rebecca Wittmann

Lecture 5  Two things going on: mass murders on one side and at the same time a more sanitized and conveyor belt style of mass murder (to make it more efficient)  Nazis by 1942 had certain plan to annihilate Jews of Europe o While one part killing, second was deportation (putting them on cattle carts and sending them to death camps or whatever) o Used existing rail systems to transport Jews from as far as Greece to eastern Europe o If not enough trains available, would use trucks or have them march  Sometime in 1941 Nazis decided to implement final solution  Coordination of this was created at Wannsee Conference in Jan 1942 o Wannsee= suburban in Berlin o Top ___ who were gonna implement this o Man leading the conversation was Heydrich (head of RSHA) o Eichmann (head of deportations) o Basically SS and __ officials who came to coordinate all the different government bureaucracies (n Poland, Soviet union etc.) to talk about deportation of 70 million Jews (including those outside of German control) o Main Reich security office in charge of this and SS and police will help to co-ordinate this process o Order police would then reinforce local police authority and help them in this process (basically rounding up Jews) o Ministry of Transportation to scheduling trains etc o Foreign Ministry to inform allies of this o First thing they talked about was resettlement -> that Jews had to be gathered in order to be resettled  Resettled in east for slave labor/murder them  Taken away in freight trains/passenger trains  Weren't given food or water, long journeys from as far as France etc. and in winter as well  Packed people in sealed freight cars packed with people  Many people came deathly ill/died  These humiliations carefully constructed to break their will and to have people look at them (Jews) as filthy animals o On one hand Nazis do this but on other, they also get locals to do this o By Jan 1942, killing commandos have murdered 14 (?) million Jews o Intentionalist argument: this was plan from the start, always wanted to murder Jews o Functionalists: Jews go to Palestine, Nazis were thinking of just kicking Jews out but later sealed them in when they thought it's possible to murder Jews o Middle ground: there was a plan roughly drawn and later on through planning it came to place  Prob: no signed order from Hitler so no proof that he initiated it  Heydrich and Himmler: people working towards Hitler, to impress him and did stuff to gain ranks so could be them doing this to impress Hitler and say this is what Germany needs to do  Before 1942 building of camps happened o Sept 1941-July 1942: Nazis have camps in Poland  Operation Reinhard  Named after Heydrich b/c he was leading conference and was assassinated later on so in his honor  In Chelmno, Majdanek, Treblinka, Belzec, Sobibor (run by Ukrainian SS guards)  Symbol of Sobibor is man whose trial in Munich ended with him convicted of aiding and abiding  Sobibor run by locals  Also in Auschwitz-Birkenav (largest camp but wasn't solely a camp. Was made of 3 camps, Auschwitz is camp where most were murdered 1.1-15 million Jews)  Vast majority were eradicated while some who were young healthy men were given tattoos were forced to work to death  70 thousand (Catholics, Ukrainian, gypsies, homosexuals, resistors, political prisoners and most Jews)  Vast majority of info from trials given from Ukrainian and political prisoners b/c there was a hierarchy and could work (less life threatening job)  Most people they murdered were with gas first (first use of gas?) o Jews from southern and Southeast Poland murdered in Belzec o Jews from Warsaw and ____ were deported to Treblinka o Jews of Woch (?) deported to …  Had Jews from Germany, Poland, France and Greece etc. so different communities rounded up o Northern and Western Europe Jews rounded up in transit camps  75% Jews from France, more then 65 000 of them were shipped from France to Auschwitz  From Netherlands, also went from trains o Southern Europe: from Greece, Italy, Croatia  43 000 from Greece and were generally murdered immediately on arrival at camp b/c Germans nervous with Soviets coming  Deported 8000 Jews mostly to Auschwitz  Allies with Croatia, and deported Jews  Some countries like Bulgaria (who had long history of Anti-Semitism) refused deportation of Jews o Central Europe: from Germany, Austria and Bohemia etc. in Aug of 1941, before extermination camps set up in Poland  Deported to ghettos  Nov-Dec 1941 40000 Jews deported to ghettos in Lithuania, Soviet and Latvia (former Soviet areas taken over by Germany which Germans brought native Jews to and later brought more) o Treblinka doesn't have long life b/c Soviet approach n 1942 so Germans shut down operations there and plowed it to ground  Murder 90 000 Jews and then remove any signs of murder  Treblinka is now a memorial site which is different from Auschwitz b/c Germans got rid of all signs of it o 1942-32 most get murdered o Summer 1944 gas chambers running at speed like they haven't run before and 10 000 Jews getting murdered each day from Jews from Hungary  1944 when they've long lost war, lost Italy, Warsaw etc and still running gas machines  440 000 Hungarian Jews murdered  Warsaw ghetto: where place were compliant and resist  If German Jew, all property taken away and shipped to ghetto where you live with people you don't know o Germans shut off sewage system, calorie ration is 144 calories per day and people starve to death, people brought in and out for slave labor, filled with SS soldiers (who do turn a blind eye to smuggling at times) and not all that many willing to help them o Ghettos run by system devised by Nazis to be run by Jew themselves: Jewish council called Judenrat  Not top leaders who they think will be dangerous but middle type to lead this  People are first of all taking orders from their own (are resentful that the Jewish council are getting something out of it) and on other, they had no comprehension of what was coming (made no sense to Nazis to kill all these Jews while war going on)  Survived from textile factories etc. to make uniforms and what not so it made no sense that nearing end of war when they're losing, why to start murdering Jews faster  Thought: cut off limb to save the body  Most of these choices are impossible o
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