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University of Toronto Mississauga
Richard White

Lecture 2  Pre-history (~1600)L Aboriginal period o b/c no written records 1. European contact before 1600 but not with Great Lake 2. 1600-1763: French period  Montreal fur trade was dominant and touched Lake Ontario 1763-1793: Former founding of Toronto (British period)  New France conquered by British at this point  Territory where Toronto will be was under British  Pre-history, don't know much about it  Sources that are used to present this info aren't written sources but artifacts  Oral history that's been passed down  Prob: can't be verified (i.e. how world founded: Christians Genesis which most don't believe), not factual Reading by Conrad and Burgar  10 000 BC humans in Toronto area  Paleo-Indians  8000 BC more advanced culture appears (Archaic Period)  Start of more sophisticated (tools, dugout canoes etc.)  If have tool, need tool to make tool, design it etc. advanced thinking  1000 BC Woodland Culture  Manufacturing pottery (fire, burning clay at certain temp. etc)  Larger number of people (inferred from bones, food refuge) Later on evolved to late Woodland   Defined by farming etc => agricultural  Maize => known as Indian corn instead of wheat, great other crops like beans, squash  Villages being settled, people making decisions, society being formed  Land clearing (can't grow unless move trees) which isn't simple  People who lived this woodland period were Iroquoian  Generation or 2 in one place then move on but while settled, would live in long house and in a village there would be hundreds in a dozen long houses  Dunno why but had to do with depletion of soil or dwellings become worn out or military conflict with neighboring tribe  Within Iroquoian, there were different nations  Some Iroquoian nations (Hurons etc.) weren't called Iroquois  Algonquian had greater diversity, term is used usually referring to the tribe  5 nations of Iroquoian, that lived in what's now New York state and formed Confederacy (later 6 nations) that divided and joined together many times  1650 (not time of first contact)  1534 when Cartier came, natives waved fur, already knew Europeans like fur (but no date)  1608 from Quebec city, goes down and encounters Iroquois (but still not date of first contact)  1650 b/c enough traders etc. there that we can get historical info  … evolved to Hurons and settled to Huronia and though Iroquoian, spoke differently  Iroquois from further south started moving to area vacated by Hurons (Toronto regions)  Thousands of Hurons killed by Iroquois in Huronia, some migrated north and Huronia ceased to exist (by 1650?)  1600s after this conquest, see settlements on Toronto region  Teiaiagnon and … were 2 settlements onshore of Toronto  Know about it b/c missionaries/traders from New France travelling upstream coming there  Seneca people made these settlements in late 1600s  Dunno much b/c people built houses above these areas  Unstable b/c French claimed entire inland as their trading empire  Weird claim b/c not many French lived there but recognized internationally
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