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Lecture 4

LIN102H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Part Of Speech, Affix, Phonetic Transcription


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN102H5
Professor
Arsalan Kahnemuyipour
Lecture
4

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Lecture 4 – Inflection & Derivational Affixes
How is inflection typically marked?
oMarking Inflection – major ways of marking inflection;
oAffixation
oInternal change; substituting one non-morphemic segment for another to mark a
grammatical contrast (sing/sang, drive/drove, goose/geese)
oSuppletion: replacing a morpheme, with an entirely different morpheme in order
to indicate a grammatical contrast (go/went, am;is;are/was;were)
Q: Do words have a linear structure or a hierarchial? Use an example like
unluckiness.
oWhen you make a word, you take morphemes and put them together
oMeaning upon meaning; there's a layered structure to the word
There are 4 morphemes in the word; 1)un 2)luck 3)y 4)ness
oTo put it together, you start with your root and you keep adding on to it
Luck and -y can be put together to make lucky
oYou can attach '-un' to an adj. (ie: lucky)
oAdding "ness" first would change its lexical category (to a noun)
oIf we don't attach 'un' to nouns, we attach it to verbs
oThe correct answer would thus be to attach 'un' first thus making it
'unlucky'
Luckyness is a noun and un doesn't attach to nouns
oWhen you attach your ness to "unlucky", you get a noun
oMeaning is built upon meaning; unluckiness means the state of being
unlucky
oIt's not the opposite of luckiness. It's actually referring to the state of being
unlucky
oIn linguistics, we use tree diagrams to represent hierarchical structure
A. Identify the morphemes in the word. You don't need to, but you can write
the words using phonetic transcription
B. Decide which morpheme is the root and mark its lexical category; A for
Adj., N for Noun, V for verb, Adv for Adverb, Mark the affixes as Aff.
C. Figure out the order in which the affixes are added by asking questions;
"to which lexical category does this affix attach?" and "if I attach this affix, will
the result be an acceptable word in english?"
Ex: Un = Aff. + Luck = N + Y = Aff + Ness = Aff
A. Draw the structure based on the correct analysis of the order of affixation
and indicate the lexical
N; Luck + Aff; Y= A; Lucky
Aff (Un) + A (Lucky) = A; Unlucky
A; Unlucky + Affix (Ness) = Noun; Unluckiness

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N
A
A
Aff N Aff Aff
Un Luck Y Ness
Q: Using the above procedure provide the tree diagram for activation, uncontrollably
and unregretfulness
Activation = act + ive + at + ion
Act = Active = Activate = Activation
N
V
Adj
V Aff Aff Aff
Act Ive Ate Ion
Uncontrollably = un + control + able + ly
Controlable = Uncontrolable = Uncontrolably
Adj
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A
A
Aff V/N Aff Aff
Un Contr
ol
Able Ly
Unregretfulness = un + regret + ful + ness
Regretful = Regretfulness = Unregretfulness
N
A
A
Aff V/N Aff Aff
Un Regr
et
Ful Ness
Q: Is the word unlockable ambiguous? If not, what is the sole meaning of this word?
If yes, what are the 2 meanings? Does each meaning correspond to a different tree
structure?
oThere are two meanings to unlockable; it can be unlocked or it cannot be
locked
oMeaning is built upon meaning
oStructural ambiguity
Un - lock - able
Aff - V -Aff
Aff + V = V
V + Aff = A; unlockable meaning can be unlocked
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