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Lecture 3

LIN232H5 Lecture 3: Morphemes
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Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN232H5
Professor
Michelle Troberg

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Lecture 3 Morphemes
-Free morphemes can occur as independent words (e.g. car, true, act, fast, Canada)
-Bound morphemes cannot occur as independent words (e.g.: un-, re--,s-ish, etc)
-Difference between an affixes and bound morphemes: Not all bound morphemes are affixes,
as they may be bound roots (thus they can't appear in isolation/freely)
-"Un" is a negation of that root and thus why it can be "unkempt" or just "kempt"
--> Kempt is called a bound root because it can't be separated more
-Sometimes affixes become free-form independent words (ex: con and pro are talked about
like they're free morphemes)
Root vs Base
-Base is the form to which an affix is attached (thus a root can be a base)
--> Something that already has an affix can also be a base
Ex: Truthful = a base is attached and thus you get truthfulness
--> It could be a root or bigger than a root
-A base can be a root (e.g. true in untrue is both a base and a root to which the prefix un-
is attached) or it can be a root and one or more affixes (e.g. in untruthful, un- is attached
to the base truthful, which itself consists of the root/base true and the suffixes th and -
ful)
-The base to which an inflectional affix is attached is sometimes known as the stem
-Derivational affixes change the lexical category and/or the basic meaning of the steam they
attach to (-ish in childish or re-in reconsider)
-Ish is considered a derivational affix and the "th" is a derivational affix as well
-There are two "-ish"'s, one that changes the lexical category and one which doesn't
-The prefixes don't change the lexical category, but they change the meaning significantly
-The inflection category do not change the lexical category and there is several of them
A. Plural -s and possisive marker like "john's"
B. Verb (sing. Marker -s) and past tense marker (walk and walked)
C. Past participle (He has seen)
D. -ing (He is walking)
E. Adjectives; comparative and superlative
-Anything other than the 8 are going to be derivational
-Derivational affixes change the lexical category and the basic meaning of the stem
(Inflection affixes always follow the derivational ones)
Ex: Formality = Formalities (follows the derivational rule)
-Inflectional affixes add grammatical information only (e.g. -s in boys)
-Inflectional suffixes always follow deriavtional ones (e.g. disagreements, lengthier, paly's,
etc)
--> No prefix is inflectional
Main Difference
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Description
Lecture 3 Morphemes -Free morphemes can occur as independent words (e.g. car, true, act, fast, Canada) -Bound morphemes cannot occur as independent words (e.g.: un-, re--,s-ish, etc) -Difference between an affixes and bound morphemes: Not all bound morphemes are affixes, as they may be bound roots (thus they can't appear in isolation/freely) -"Un" is a negation of that root and thus why it can be "unkempt" or just "kempt" --> Kempt is called a bound root because it can't be separated more -Sometimes affixes become free-form independent words (ex: con and pro are talked about like they're free morphemes) Root vs Base -Base is the form to which an affix is attached (thus a root can be a base) --> Something that already has an affix can also be a base Ex: Truthful = a base is attached and thus you get truthfulness --> It could be a root or bigger than a root -A base can be a root (e.g. true in untrue is both a base and a root to which the prefix un- is attached) or it can be a root and one or more affixes (e.g. in untruthful, un- is attached to the base truthful, which itself consists of the root/base true and the suffixes th and - ful) -The base to which an inflectional affix is attached is sometimes known as the stem -Derivational affixes change the lexical category and/or the basic meaning of the steam they attach to (-ish in childish or re-in reconsider) -Ish is considered a derivational affix and the "th" is a derivational affix as well -There are two "-ish"'s, one that changes the lexical category and one which doesn't -The prefixes don't change the lexical category, but they change the meaning significantly -The inflection category do not change the lexical category and there is several of them A. Plural -s and possisive marker like "john's" B. Verb (sing. Marker -s) and past tense marker (walk and walked) C. Past participle (He has seen) D. -ing (He is walking) E. Adjectives; comparative and superlative -Anything other than the 8 are going to be derivational -Derivational affixes change the lexical category and the basic meaning of the stem (Inflection affixes always follow the derivational ones) Ex: Formality = Formalities (follows the derivational rule) -Inflectional affixes add grammatical information only (e.g. -s in boys) -Inflectional suffixes always follow deriavtional ones (e.g. disagreements, lengthier, paly's, etc) --> No prefix is inflectional Main Difference
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