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POL327Y5 Lecture Notes - Ruling Class, Invisible Hand, Centrism

Political Science
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POL327 Class 2 September 17th, 2012
Foreign policy studies, is recent, new field & traditionally had a strong tendency towards euro
centrism. Reason= international theory was understood that states are divided among the great
powers and the dependent states, only great powers only have independent foreign policy. Most
of those great powers were concentrated in Europe, it focused on Britain, France, Spain etc.. than
the rise of SU and USA. Lesser states (dependent) mean (Canada after second world war, rides
on US for security) refer to “finalization” of lesser states, relationship that Finland had in the
cold war and before to Russia and Soviet Union, couldn’t guarantee its own security against its
powerful neighbor. Consequently they didn’t develop an independent foreign policy, that focus
on great powers, effected those in developing world, which to a large extent were excluded.
Experience of colonialism, territories in developing world didn’t have independent foreign policy
as long as they were colonies of foreign powers. When they emerged as independent states, they
exhibit characteristics of dependency in economics (economically independent, ect India 1945)
They continue to function on economic dependence structures that were created from
colonial times, were survived. Period of cold war, dependency extended to military those aspects
of foreign policy, those depended on US or SU. The countries that championed non-alliance
became aligned. (India increasingly dependent on SU for foreign supplies). This has changed
significantly with rise of China and India, and decreasing of Iran, North Korea and Venezuela.
Policy Change: foreign or domestic is the decision making process at the level of the state and
to understand the nature of policy, how they are shaped & why, have to familiarize with the
debates of policies and nature of states.
Theories of the State
What are states, why do they do the things that they do? 3+1
Liberal/Pluralist-Contract liberals saw the emergence of the state as a social contract,
emergence of the magnacardium (what the state is allowed to do, limit and agreement between
individuals within the society & with the state, how the government should rule). EX: USA
approach dominates, point to US constitution, declaration of independence was bedrock of the
creation of the US state, idea that relationship between state & people is based on agreement that
both the governors and the citizens have to observe. All men are equal, certain rights which are
life, liberty and pursuit of happiness (John Locke switch from property). When governments
violate these rights, it’s the right/duty for every member of the society to abolish it, if the social
contract was violated. Forces government to stay within limits, the “invisible hand” ambition
should check ambition. Everyone can be selfish, do what’s best for yourself to enhance your
wealth, but in this competition, the invisible hand, what society needs as a whole is created. Just
Price- needs of society balanced with the person producing the good. Ex: cranberries, would
have a just price set, how much you could charge for them. Imagine an extreme shorage, lots of
people getting sick without them, the just price should be set so everyone can get them. The
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