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Lecture 2

PHY137H5F 2014 Lecture 2 - Electric Charge.pdf

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Wagih Ghobriel

Lecture 2 - Electric Charge Sunday, 12 January, 2014 11:16 PM Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Lecture Topic: Superconductors: the material has no resistance to electric current • These are very important because 30% of power from power generators is lost due to resistance Methods of charging objects 1. Charging by contact ○ Electrons are transferred by rubbing the negatively charged rod on the metal sphere ○ When the rod is removed, the electrons distribute themselves over the surface of the sphere ○ The electrons repel each other until they are equidistant 2. Charging by induction ○ If attracted or repulsed, the electrons inside an object may be polarized Wire connecting to ground Insulated stand Negative charge in the ground 3. Polarization (for insulating material) ○ The negatively charged rod induces a slight positive surface charge on the plastic ○ The positive and negative charges in the molecules separate slightly Comb The side of the paper closest to the comb now has a slight opposite charge Paper Coulomb's Law - Coulomb found that there is a force between the positive and negative charges and wrote the theoretical equation for it: • The magnitude F of the electrostatic force exerted by one point charge on another point charge is directly proportional to the magnitudes q 1nd q of2the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance r between them: ○
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