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Lecture 4

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Political Science
Peter Loewen

Thursday, January-26-12 POL111: Lecture 4 Canada in a Comparative Perspective Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy:  Extensive form games o Model interaction between individuals, some interactions happen simultaneously such as the Prisoner’s Dilemma, other games are sequential in which a person takes an action after which the other player responds o Citizens take action and the state responds to it-this is sequential o Exit voice loyalty (EVL) game is expressing the idea that citizens have three essential choices they can be loyal to the government or to express their dissatisfaction and they can leave  Imagine that you enter a neighbourhood and you think there is a problem with how the park is administered, you could seek a councillor, voice your concern or you could move o Voice may mean that you organize groups or participate in elections o Under what conditions will the citizen exit, stay loyal or voice?  Moves happened from order of left to right, it starts with the citizen taking one of three actions, they can exit, voice their opinion or remain loyal, each branch is a decision  E is the citizens payoff by exiting  The state benefits from the loyalty of the citizen because it gives it legitimacy  Backward induction is used to analyze the final node of the citizen (loyalty or exit)  The citizen will exit because the payoff is greater  The payoff of the state can be seen when the citizen exists or if the state responds, choice is between 1 and L, L > 1 which means the state will respond  Penultimate-second last-which would be the state’s decision in the EVL game  The citizen is comparing the payoff of loyalty, exit and the state if it responds o The citizen will voice because E<1-C  (Voice-first node, Exit-at third node; Respond) Sub game perfect NE  One sub game starts at citizen, another at the state and the last one is the citizen again 1 Thursday, January-26-12  At every node figure what decision the actor would make, fill the line, and trace it to solve Players 1 and 2:  (Up, Right; Down)-PNE  Player 3-Left  Player 2-up=-1, Down=0, Down  Player 1-up=2, down=6, Down  (Down; Down, Down; Left)-SPNE What is democracy?  Rights are protected, people can participate in government, free and fair elections  Slide 2-Winston Churchill  Tony Benn-MP in the British house of commons, democracy is the single greatest idea or invention in human history, born in an exceedingly rich family in Britain, his father was a lord, he enter HC as an MP except his brother died and he inherited his title as a lord, nobilities however are not allowed to be in the HC but the House of Lord , he fought the law to be elected as a lord-supported unions, reunification of Ireland, lower tuition rate believed that people are being managed or changed to fit the system, but people should be represented to meet their needs, he believed that the power to vote is taken and given to international organizations and corporations, it is radical because it take power away from i.e. Authoritarians or capitalist and gives it to the people  “The simple action of voting can destroy a government without killing someone”  What is democracy o It allows people an even chance to govern  Aristotle’s Typology o If the ruler takes action for themselves or on behalf of others the type of government is established o Democracy-idea of turning ruling to everyone was a mob rule, it was a rule by the worst class of people which makes democracy bad, the aristocracy were believed to make good and wise decisions, but now we make decisions at the loss of the wealthy o It was believed the citizens didn’t have the intelligence to govern themselves. This can result in war  Democracy was tried in Athens but it was seen as absolute, and wasn’t seen as elected representative but people taking direct actions themselves  Dem. In Historical Perspectives 2 Thursday, January-26-12 o There is a competing idea, dictatorship-rule without election, with a wise leader o They were though as a good system because they had the best interest of the society and made decisions on behalfthf them  Democracy won especially in the course of the 20 century o 1989 after cold war democracy increases especially with the fall of the USSR  Democracy won-images of Africans lining up after the elimination of apartheid  Democracy is seen as the ideal system of government  Democracy One (slide, what is democracy) o There are free and open elections o Competitor
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