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POL200 lippincott notes for plato essay

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL200Y5
Professor
Mark Lippincott

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- how do we know who are our true friends and enemies? o often easily deceived as to who has our best interests at heart - it is just to harm someone else? (injustice) o can u bring more justice by acting unjustly? - justice is the advantageous of the strong - weak: follow laws, strong: enforce laws - advantage to themselves or others (ex. doctors, sailors, horseman) - Gods are good - Gods don’t change – same form - “ideals” – establishment in the city - convince everyone that all other life up to this point has been a dream o while asleep/dreaming – Gods were putting different metals into the souls  gold, silver, iron/bronze  gold: rulers, true guardians, wise  silver: auxiliaries, warriors, soldiers  iron/bronze: workers  3 essential classes of people - hierarchy by nature: small class of the wise, who rule with the help of the courageous and the support of the workers – the noble lie - by God - these type of lies can be medicinal – if properly used by the proper people, under the proper conditions – ex. Homeopathy o lie/deception in order to bring help - 2 different types of lies o verbal: can be used justly – if used wisely  but most people should not lie – champion the idea of truth  lying is harmful  the few (doctors of the soul): can use a verbal lie well without causing harm o lie of the soul: lie that misleads you about who you really are – your true nature  can never be used w/o causing harm - by nature, a few of us are fit to rule – capable of seeing the big picture - warriors/soldiers - neither of the latter, but fit to work - previous life was a dream – simplification of a clear but complex truth that there are 3 different types of people - you think you are carrying around gold in your souls – believe you are superior - is it really noble or is it a verbal lie ? – telling us who we are by nature - no one is gold/silver/iron/bronze o the metals are “mixed” into our souls - all of us have a spiritual part/ruling part/appetitive part o by which we make decision – may be stupid, but is a ruling part of the soul – just as in the city o if we all have 3 parts to our soul: spiritual part/ruling part/appetitive o how noble can it be if we have all 3… o no “more” than the other – all 3 equal? o neither noble or a verbal lie – deliberate attempt to mislead – think about the nature of justice - every word is written by Plato – why would he spend all his time distinguishing one lie from another o why would he warn us? o have to persuade everyone the metal theory – not a mixture, but only one metal  warned us about people deceiving us – 3 parts to our soul - self fulfilling prophecy – if I treat you as gold, you will act like gold o rise to the challenge o we have to test and observe and educate ASAP– beginning of any project is crucial – sets the pattern/form – we have to intervene systematically in the lives of our soldiers/rules – not so much for the iron/bronze o we will make mistakes – think someone is gold/silver when they’re not – real life experience  demote them - seems easy but the structure of the ideal city is such that the workers work, the auxiliaries guard, and the guardians rule – without interfering in the affairs of others o soldier not courageous, what happens? – their entire life has been devoted to being “silver” – forbidden to even touch gold/silver – not allowed to have private property – can’t meddle in the affairs of money o when they fail - what do we do with these people? - Plato is suggesting something he will undermine - bronze/iron live normal lives – work, own, have private property - other 2 classes are given extraordinary attention - largest part of the soul – money making part - smallest – ruling - those who do not complete their philosophical training - problem o philosophy is introduced too early – not ready o when introduced to something truly philosophical, you’re going to warp it - a little knowledge can destroy a world o get mean and vicious  tell lies about yourself and your own experiences - who can retain the lesson - “A” student doesn’t exist – “A” work o philosophy is a lifelong pursuit - 2. public opinion is more real than image based knowledge - 3. empirical scientifically proved knowledge - 4. the plutonic forms o the highest form of knowledge - the allegory of the cave o levels of knowledge o prisoners in a cave not knowing they are imprisoned o can only look at the shadows on the wall o anything we understand to be true is a shadow and we are UNAWARE – not blind – of that fact  don’t see what we think we see - if you’ve seen nothing but shadows all your life, you will mistake that for reality - one prisoner is RELEASED – do not ESCAPE o forced to stand up and see “reality” – look at the fire – losing your mind  starting to see the reality of your condition o force drags you into the world – don’t willingly leave the realm of the shadows – Plato’s understanding of education o “real” not shadows – process of true education starts - return to the world that is dominated by shadows – after seeing the world o people get awards for interpreting the shadows - Plato is against IGNORANCE The Cave Allegory - prisoners in cave when we l
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