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POL208 Monday May 14.docx

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Political Science

POL208 Monday, May 14, 2012 Neorealism  “New school of realism”  Does not reject everything that realists say Kenneth Waltz (1924)  Famous for two books that shaped this school: Man, the State, and war (’59), and the Theory of International Politics (’79)  Critiques one of the biggest failings of the realists  Realists believed that the fundamental cause of why the system is the way it is that everything is the product of human nature  Believed that people are brutish, and are willing to “stab each other in the back”  You will never eliminate war according to realists as human nature cannot be changed  Waltz agreed that human beings can be brutish and can commit many crimes, however also argued that there are many good attributes to human nature  The number of wars varies  Our evilness variable is constant in short/medium terms  Something that is constant cannot explain something that varies  Waltz argues that the cause of warfare is structural  Neorealists are also called structural realists Structural  The system is anarchic  The nature of the units (states/countries)  All states want to survive but they each have different capabilities  Some countries have lots of resources and are protected by natural resources while others are not so fortunate  There would be no war if no countries had an advantage over the other Liberals/ Idealists/ Utopians  Believed that Hobbes was right; there is a lot of violence in the world  Also agreed that the international system can indeed be brutish and short  Disagreed saying that the system is not always that way  There is also a lot of peace/cooperation in the system  Addressed all the issues pointed out by realists, but stated that this is not the case always Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)  Democratic peace theory is associated with him  Famous for writing a book called “perpetual peace”  Even though the international system is anarchic countries with a democratic form of governance will tend not to fight with one another  Those with similar governing methods will not fight against each other  Who pays the highest price for the war if there is one? The people (financially, and in their lives; the ones who fight and die) Michael W. Doyle (1948)  Expanded on Kant’s ideas but was the first to empirically measure and test the democratic peace theory  Doyle popularized this idea  Doyle never argued that war between democracies is impossible  Never said it would never happen, simply said it would be extremely unlikely to happen between two democracies  Democracies fight many wars; they are not necessarily peace loving  Why don’t democracies fight each other: Political Culture Explanation, Political Structure Explanation Political Culture Explanation  Norms and values are what makes them less likely to go to war with one another  In a well-functioning democracy there is respect for the rule of law  There is a respect for the political process  You accept the outcome of the voting process  The law is not applied maliciously  There are standards in society  Things that we believe about our democracy internally are externalized as well (democratic peace theory)  If we, a society that believes in the rule of law, gets into a problem with a democracy that also believes in the rule of law, we will be likely to solve it in a peaceful manner Political Structure Explanation  Certain aspects of the political system that prevent democracies from going to war with other democracies Critiques 1. The concept of democracy is poorly operationalized (q
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