Class Notes (838,213)
Canada (510,762)
POL214Y5 (144)
David Pond (31)

First Term Lecture Notes

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Political Science
David Pond

POL214 – Lecture Notes Lecture 1 • Political Culture o Sets the ‘outer boundaries’to what is acceptable behaviour, language, discourse, etc  ‘norms of behaviour o Transformational changes in CDAover lifetime  ‘Trudeau’s Canada’  Harper’s trying to make large impact o Has layers of culture  Liberal values • Values that characterize our values as a country (our fundamental values) • Engrained values o Ex. Rule of Law, liberty, etc • National political culture o Set out in Charter of Rights o Distinct to CDA • English CDAvs. Quebec o Multiculturalism, etc • w/I Canada, regional/provincial cultures o Atlantic Canada, etc • w/I Province/territories o NorthAlbert, SouthAlberta Lecture 2 • CDAis the product of a very old civilization (queen) • Political Culture Cont’d o CDNs are moving into cities, but our system of legislative representation doesn’t reflect this  More people in urban ridings than rural ridings o In USA, President = head of state & head of gov’t o In CDA, PM = head of gov’t, but Queen = head of state  Queen/GG o Democratic accountability problem b/c of PM&Queen concept o CDNs were actively involved in both world wars  Not really peacekeepers until Trudeau o Look at diffs b/w CDA& USA(52-65)  CDN values vs.American values • Hartz-Horowitz & Fragment Theory o People came from Britain & brought their liberal values w/ them  Mix of liberal & conservative values o British loyalists were part of forming CDN values, mostly inAlberta  ‘liberals w/ a tory touch’ o American have a ‘love it or leave it’policy o CDNs are more tolerant • Quebec as a Cultural Fragment o France brought feudalism o QC got cut off from Europe, so they skipped evolving w/ France  Ex. When feudalism was abolished b/c of French revolution, QC didn’t follow o Remained ‘feudal fragment’ o Slowly absorbed liberal cultural values • Lipset’s Formative Events Theory o Argued that the events that occurred were more imp than the cultural ideas they had • Why do we care? o Want to explain why certain things are more evident than others in contemp CDA  Ex. Deference to authority, living w/ crown o Main diff: we have socialists, they don’t Lecture 3 – Political Culture and Constitutional Foundations • CDNs accept a larger role of gov’t in society than USA • Institutions support culture o Reflect and perpetuate values o Ex. Parliamentary system in CDA  Medicare • Was produced over the interests of special interest groups & powerful private interests • Charter of Rights is a liberal document (exam) o Reflects liberal values in society; now helps to perpetuate those values o Specifically CDN, liberal doc o Ex. Same-sex marriage • Constitutional Foundations o Historically, most fed gov’ts dominated by central CDN MPs & Cabinet Ministers (QC&ON)  = tension b/w democ principle & fed principle  Democ: rep by pop  Fed: rep by region • The Constitution o Diffs b/w written and unwritten o Written = USA(new doc; blueprint) o Unwritten = Britain (impossible to create constitution for Britain b/c of history) o CDAhas both written & unwritten constitutions  Most imp: ConstitutionAct, 1867  Created a fed union  CDAbased on provs; USAbased on ind people o Statute of Westminster (1931)  British couldn’t ever pass an amendment to BNAact after 1931 o Sir JohnA. Wanted a centralized gov’t • CDN motto is about conquering physical space • USAmotto is about nationalism Lecture 4 – Institutional Foundations & Responsible Gov’t • Reasons for Federalism o American civil war threat o Needed money (were heavily in debt) o British didn’t wanted to defend in case of US invasion  Wanted to get rid of us o Respect existing Colonial societies in BNA  Quebec & Maritime were opposed  Imp motive was to create local gov’t units • Ontario o Sir JohnA (conservative) o George Brown wanted to join confederation b/c he predicted the liberals would dominate (accurate) • Quebec o Demanded prov-level control over matters w/ cultural connotations;  Education  Solemnization of marriage  Property & civil rights  Administration of justice o Bilingualism guaranteed & share of seats in senate o Political nationality, not ethnic or religious • Americans had nationalism (shed blood for country) • CDNs didn’t  English vs. French Both wanted their own • Only way that English and French can live together is if they’re separated into diff provs • Provincial support for the Confederation Bargain o Three main institutions design to accommodate regional interests in centre:  House of Commons  Rep by Pop  Senate o Compromise: equal regional representation • Federal state must be a state w/ a written constitution • Combined federalism and parliamentary gov’t o First to do this Tutorial 1 – Responsible Gov’t • How gov’t is formed • PM needs confidence of majority of MPs • Significant issues in parliament (ex. Budget) o Are confidence issues • Party Discipline (midterm) o Very high in CDA o b/c of structure  Cabinet ministers must be an MP o Very weak in USA  Cabinet Minister can be anyone • Low incentives can be offered Lecture 5 – Responsible Gov’t cont’d • Written constitution is no guide to how gov’t and parliament works • GG doesn’t get to choose PM, but must swear him in as PM b/c of resp gov’t • Oath observed by: o CDA GG o USA  all people at Capital building o CDA oath to swear secrecy; to keep secret
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