- agrees that humans are interdependent, but denies any economic laws, change as mode
of production changes.
- human beings are unique in their capacity for creativity ( to project the future and make
- we transform nature, take raw materials, and manipulate them and transform in order
to create a second nature i.e. buildings and transportation etc.
- the second nature brings about a social dimension (the class structure)
- Although we ourselves create this second nature, we let it operate beyond our control
- Communism will bring about the conscious control through deliberate reason
- Destiny of humans is to create our own destiny, and freedom means self-determination
within a social project upon which we rationally agree
- Bee vs. Architect: Bee makes hive from instinct, architect out of consciousness
- Labourers are at a disadvantage, and stripped from their essence by capitalism, because
they have to sell their labour ( dehumanization)
- People who buy the labour are the masters?
- Human labour is reduced to the level of human activity, we work because we need
money to eat.
- The result of this is a new social irrationality
- We have subordinate economic laws to our own rational control
- What are the laws of capitalism?
o commodities – there is no advanced correlation between the means of
production, producer does not know if what he is making is useful to society,
the only way he will know is if the commodity he makes enters successfully
into the market. The Market is a test, it is unknown.
o Value: usefulness vs. exchange value, things that have use value, lose their
exchange value in a periodic cyclical crisis (Columbian Coffee collapse)
o The exchange value is opposed to producers, the more the indulge in
exchange, the more exchange becomes independent of them
o Profit = distinction b/w use and exchange value, the capitalist has use for the
product, but what he pays is the exchange value
o The worker use