November 26 , 2012
Midterm next week:
6 identifications, you answer 4 – ten points each, 40% of test. Identify the concept and why it’s
important in foreign policy. Second part = essay, choose 2 out of 3 you have to answer 2. 60%.
Didn’t mention any concepts or ideas to focus on specifically.
US foreign policy in Latin America, and Middle East
One way to summarize the discussion, is that the United States did not extensively practice
th th th
during the 19 century, but began to expand outwards in the late 19 and 20 century, Caribbean
and Latin America, you have to deal with two issues: one being the general perception that the
US has rejected the idea of colonialism, US revolution was anti-colonialism and 2 consistently
a promoter of democracy. Both are semi true, but misleading. The US revolution was a rejection
of British Empire, but not of European expansion in other parts of the role. US first century of
independence expanded territorially, since than (Philippines , Puerto Rico) not much. 20
century sought to become an equal participant globally in the status quo “globally” which was
heavily defined, meaning that It sought to dismantle in favor of multilateral approach, to
expanding economic role by European powers. US wanted to take advantage of the social factors
the colonialism ment, it favoured stability which meant continued control of an European elite.
Important of manufactured goods, first in Europe, and 20 century the US.
Middle East- same role, entrance was only after ww2 (minor exceptions government Roosevelt
close ties Saudi Arabia). Acted mostly, to reinforce stability. Reassert their control, adopted
multilateral approach, which it rejected idea of national colonies, sought to keep the same set of
elites in power to reinforce dependency on western Europe, and increasingly with America,
allied itself with authoritarian governments who put in place by great Britain and France.
Middle East + Latin America: promotion of democracy. US promoted civilian governments, but
only when development of those governments didn’t counter the US goals, the stability of the
system. Each instance where democratic governments threatened that relationship, US preferred
authoritarian governments. Promotion of democracy they partook was in keeping their attidude
with their elites towards democracy, checks and balnces to keep it restrained
Middle East: Iran 1950s, and support for authoritarian gov the Sha.
Latin America: rejection of reformist government in Guatamala, in that context the US
government wants stability over democracy, installed a military government. Relationship to
Chile, democracy led to a more reformist government being elected, confronting US
East Asia: as long as democracy didn’t threaten status quo, Indonesia: independence from
Netherlands, transition to democracy election of Suconar government, non alliance movement it
supported and highly reformist, under the sucarnar government, Indonesia developed strong communist movements, 1966 supported a coup against it, which ushered in military government
general Sutartar. 600,000 suspected communist, on going military regime, worst human rights
characteristics, government 1966-1990s.
South Africa: Apartheid years, crucial ally, more countries were gaining independence, anti-
colonial movements, were leftist. Rejection of repeated governments to isolate SA due to their
apartheid government, cooperated with south African attempts to destabilize their revolutionary
neighbours to the north. Gave rise to the bigger relationships in the region, Angola: second
largest oil exporter, US/SA not happy with Angola, sought to undermine it, UINDA, supported
him with weapons, moneys to attack.. the UNIDA forces never powerful enough to have head to
head battle, targeted the oil instillations. Gorilla warfare, government needed international help,
they asked Cuba to help them, Cuba forces were guarding oil from attacks from the army being
supported by the US/SA. SA never able to destabilize its neighbouring governments, end of cold
war fell to African National Congress, moderated its policies after collapse of SU, reformist less
threatening to status quo.
1962-1996, he ruled.
Civil war in height, 15,000 peace keepers from UN, most said observers described them as
tourist in a war zone.
Far East- growing confrontation with China
Chinese revolution defeat in US, indication they were at the losing end, the confrontation
changed over time, supported Chinese national government to Taiwan, this changed after defeat
of American forces in Vietnam, to try to roll back Chinese revolution by supporting anti-
communist forces. Lead to rethinking of American foreign policy under Nixon administration,
which recognized China in 1952, Republicans are seen as warriors, Nixon could go to China to
make policy change, where a democrat would have been accused with being weak on
communism. Nixon practiced this with regard to China, tilted closer to Chinese government.
After collapse of SU, led to a relationship with congagement – combination of containment and
engagement, China has never left the list of adversaries of the US, dictating a policy of
containment, but the Chinese government policies, they increasingly made use of this,
schizophrenic relationship- containment of china, seemed to disappear under bush administration
that viewed china as a reliable ally in war on terror. China had military Muslim in east china
problem, it gave Chinese government to do whatever they want to them,
Tabit- region of western china, the “Dalilama” is allowed in the white house, under Obama
administration, the containment part has gained the upper hand, tilt to the pacific, US more
engaged in containing Chinese influence not only in that region but in places like Africa, where
confrontations can be interpreted through this lense. The confrontation with Iran, why is US so
interested? Historical: Islamic revolution major fail and impact on foreign policy, as US regime confronted
Iran. Chinese heavily invested in Iran with oil and energy, undermines economic issue with
taking out Iran regime.
Libya: policy of containment, meant isolating it from trade, the investment opportunities could
not be made used of was made used of by China, undermining Gadaffi hurt China.
Sudan: bad human rights, isolated, south Sudan has succeeded with western powers. China has
invested heavily in Africa, challenge European dominance in that region. Explains to the extent
governments that challenge it, to see the successfulness.
Don’t have the same kind of cloud anymore, US relationship, Chinese and US don’t like
eachother, but the extent to which engagement has made it difficult to become adversaries.
Learned this Term
Realist engage in foreign policy to keep their security, to protect themselves from anarchic
international order. Realists argue, reality will persist regardless of the rise and fall of individual
powers, and including the US. Making foreign policy, states are rational actors, engage in
process of developing foreign policy by rationally engaging the threats and the policy
alternatives to a rational cost and benefit analysis. That policy triumphs, that states are rationale
actors, what this implies, is you have to see the resources they have at their disposal to confront