PSY230H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Framingham Heart Study, Heritability, Termite

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28 Nov 2018
School
Department
Course
Personality and Longevity
Does your personality influence your life-expectancy?
Longevity and a Healthy Life Style
How important is a healthy life-style for our longevity (i.e., how long we live?).
3457 Framingham Heart Study participants who were 30 to 49 years of age in 1948.
Measures
-Gender
-Smoking
-Body-Mass-Index (kg / m2)
[Example: BMI = 76 / 1.762 = 24.5]
- Mortality
Conclusion
Strong relation between predictor variables and mortality.
Non-smoking female participants with a healthy BMI had an 80% chance to be alive at
age 80.
Smoking male participants with an unhealthy BMI had a 20% chance to be alive at age
80.
Personality and Longevity
Lewis Terman initiated a longitudinal study of gifted children in the 1920s.
The participants in this study called themselves the termites.
Howard S. Friedman published numerous articles on predictors of longevity based on
this study.
The Terman Study
In 1921-22, Lewis Terman recruited over 1500 children (age 11) for a longitudinal
study (IQ > 135).
Parents rated childrens personality.
In 1940 (age 30) self-reports of personality.
In 1991, a Termite would have been 80 years old.
- leading causes of death were cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
- 58% were actually alive, 42% had died.
- High conscientiousness (top 25%): 63% alive
- Low conscientiousness (lowest 25%): 53% alive
Cheerfulness and Mortality
Cheerfulness was assessed by parent and teacher ratings in childhood.
Cheerfulness was measured with the items
- cheerful/optmistic
-“sense of humor
Cheerfulness was a negative predictor of longevity.
(cheerful children were going to die earlier)
Sexual Behavior and Longevity
[Sex and Death: Freuds favorite topics]
Measures. Self-report of sexual behavior.
- Indulgence in petting, kissing, and spooning in high school
- Attitude towards sex at high school
Other Findings
The authors also examined other potential predictors of longevity.
Longevity was not related to:
- frequency of marital intercourse
- amount of sexual pleasure
- sexual upbringing (sex education)
Conclusion
Positive Emotions and Longevity
Participants. 180 Catholic US American nuns.
Method. Handwritten one-page autobiographies at the age of 22 were coded for
individual differences in the use of positive and negative words.
General Conclusion
There is good evidence that personality predicts longevity.
The exact mechanism are still unclear.
It is likely that some of these effects are due to personality effects on life-style factors
that influence health.
Personality and Relationships
Attachment Theory
Relationship Outcomes
Attachment Theory
Parents behavior determines childrens attachment style.
Sensitive and responsive parenting leads to secure attachment.
Childhood attachment styles have long-term consequences for social relationships
later in life.
Do you believe that this theory explains your own attachment style?
A. yes. B. No
Adult Attachment and Romantic Relationships
A brief self-report measure of adult attachment.
Relationship outcomes were assessed 8 months later.
Status. Currently in a romantic relationship.
[only for those in a relationship]
Length. Length of current romantic relationship.
Satisfaction. Satisfaction with romantic relationship.
Longitudinal Evidence
-First-born children from mothers living in poverty in 1975-1977.
- Infant attachment at 12 and 18 months with the stranger situation test.
- At age 20, measures of romantic relationship:
-Self-reported closeness
- Observer raters based on videotaped interactions.
Conclusion:
Longitudinal studies show that infant attachment styles and parent-child conflict
during childhood predict romantic relationship quality in adulthood.
Do these findings prove causality? A. Yes, B = No.
Behavioural Genetics Studies:
Adult Attachment
- Several studies have found negligible estimates for shared environment on adult
attachment styles.
At the same time, these studies showed genetic effects on adult attachment styles.
A Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
150 MZ and 176 DZ female twins
and their husbands!
Relationship Satisfaction scale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale
Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
Twin similarity in marital satisfaction:
MZ r= .32, DZ r= .15
Correlations between one twins own marital satisfaction and the OTHER twins
spouse (they are not married!
MZ r= .15, DZ r= .04
Similarity between twins and their spouses (they ARE married) in marital satisfaction.
MZ r = .61, DZ r= .61
Conclusion: The current relationship with a spouse matters, the past relationship with
parents does not.
Implications/Relevance
Marital satisfaction is not just a reflection of the quality of a relationship. Getting a
divorce may not make you happier because dissatisfaction could be due to your own
personality/genes!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by a spouses personality: Choose your spouse
carefully!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by relationship quality. You can do things to improve
marital satisfaction!
Similarity in personality is NOT important for relationship quality.
PART 2
What is well-being?
Subjective definition: Preference Realization
The match between an individuals actual and ideal life.
Genetic and Environment Influences
A Dutch twin/family study (Stubbe et al., 2004)
- MZ twins r= .38
- DZ twins r= .11
-Siblings r= .11
Danish twin study (Kohler et al., 2005)
- MZ r= .38
-DZ r= .18
Some evidence for heritability
- some additive, some non-additive effects
No evidence for shared environment effects
Stability and Change in Life Satisfaction:
National Representative Sample of Married Couples
Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel
- measured every year for over 20 years
Single-item question about life satisfaction
- similar to WVS question
Analyses based on 847 married couples.
Conclusion
~ 50% of the variance is stable (never changes)
- could reflect genetic effects
Less stability than personality traits
- suggests environmental effects
Spouses change in the same direction over time
- shows environmental effects
- suggests marriage influences life-satisfaction
High similarity for satisfaction with household income.
Low similarity for satisfaction with health.
How do personality traits influence life-satisfaction?
Schimmack, Diener, and Oishi (2002) proposed hedonic balance as a mediator.
Personality (Extraversion & Neuroticism) has direct effects on hedonic balance.
People rely on their affective experiences to judge life satisfaction.
As a result, personality has indirect effects on life-satisfaction that are mediated by
hedonic balance.
Facets of Neuroticism
Neuroticism is a Broad Disposition
There are more specific dispositions for different types of negative moods (anxiety,
anger, sadness).
Anxiety can be managed
- avoid stress & uncertainty
Anger can motivate actions to improve WB
- change jobs, get a discount
Depression is harder to regulate
- no meaning
- no clear or unattainable goals.
A Pospective Study of Life Satisfaction and Marriage
Participants. A 15-year longitudinal study of over 20,000 Germans. Data were
collected on an annual basis.
Materials.
-Life-satisfaction was assessed with a single-item that ranged from 0 (totally unhappy)
to 10 (totally happy).
- Year of marriage was also assessed.
Results
The authors determined the influence of marriage on life-satisfaction of those
participants who got married during the 15-year period.
Getting married was associated with a 0.23 point increase (on a 0 to 10 scale) in life
satisfaction.
Two-years after marriage life satisfaction returned to the same level as it was before
marriage!
Does that mean marriage has no effect on life satisfaction?
Week 11
Wednesday, November 28, 2018
12:23 PM
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This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
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Personality and Longevity
Does your personality influence your life-expectancy?
Longevity and a Healthy Life Style
How important is a healthy life-style for our longevity (i.e., how long we live?).
3457 Framingham Heart Study participants who were 30 to 49 years of age in 1948.
Measures
-Gender
-Smoking
-Body-Mass-Index (kg / m2)
[Example: BMI = 76 / 1.762 = 24.5]
- Mortality
Conclusion
Strong relation between predictor variables and mortality.
Non-smoking female participants with a healthy BMI had an 80% chance to be alive at
age 80.
Smoking male participants with an unhealthy BMI had a 20% chance to be alive at age
80.
Personality and Longevity
Lewis Terman initiated a longitudinal study of gifted children in the 1920s.
The participants in this study called themselves the “termites.”
Howard S. Friedman published numerous articles on predictors of longevity based on
this study.
The Terman Study
In 1921-22, Lewis Terman recruited over 1500 children (age 11) for a longitudinal
study (IQ > 135).
Parents rated childrens personality.
In 1940 (age 30) self-reports of personality.
In 1991, a Termite would have been 80 years old.
- leading causes of death were cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
- 58% were actually alive, 42% had died.
- High conscientiousness (top 25%): 63% alive
- Low conscientiousness (lowest 25%): 53% alive
Cheerfulness and Mortality
Cheerfulness was assessed by parent and teacher ratings in childhood.
Cheerfulness was measured with the items
- cheerful/optmistic
-“sense of humor
Cheerfulness was a negative predictor of longevity.
(cheerful children were going to die earlier)
Sexual Behavior and Longevity
[Sex and Death: Freuds favorite topics]
Measures. Self-report of sexual behavior.
- Indulgence in petting, kissing, and spooning in high school
- Attitude towards sex at high school
Other Findings
The authors also examined other potential predictors of longevity.
Longevity was not related to:
- frequency of marital intercourse
- amount of sexual pleasure
- sexual upbringing (sex education)
Conclusion
Positive Emotions and Longevity
Participants. 180 Catholic US American nuns.
Method. Handwritten one-page autobiographies at the age of 22 were coded for
individual differences in the use of positive and negative words.
General Conclusion
There is good evidence that personality predicts longevity.
The exact mechanism are still unclear.
It is likely that some of these effects are due to personality effects on life-style factors
that influence health.
Personality and Relationships
Attachment Theory
Relationship Outcomes
Attachment Theory
Parents behavior determines childrens attachment style.
Sensitive and responsive parenting leads to secure attachment.
Childhood attachment styles have long-term consequences for social relationships
later in life.
Do you believe that this theory explains your own attachment style?
A. yes. B. No
Adult Attachment and Romantic Relationships
A brief self-report measure of adult attachment.
Relationship outcomes were assessed 8 months later.
Status. Currently in a romantic relationship.
[only for those in a relationship]
Length. Length of current romantic relationship.
Satisfaction. Satisfaction with romantic relationship.
Longitudinal Evidence
-First-born children from mothers living in poverty in 1975-1977.
- Infant attachment at 12 and 18 months with the stranger situation test.
- At age 20, measures of romantic relationship:
-Self-reported closeness
- Observer raters based on videotaped interactions.
Conclusion:
Longitudinal studies show that infant attachment styles and parent-child conflict
during childhood predict romantic relationship quality in adulthood.
Do these findings prove causality? A. Yes, B = No.
Behavioural Genetics Studies:
Adult Attachment
- Several studies have found negligible estimates for shared environment on adult
attachment styles.
At the same time, these studies showed genetic effects on adult attachment styles.
A Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
150 MZ and 176 DZ female twins
and their husbands!
Relationship Satisfaction scale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale
Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
Twin similarity in marital satisfaction:
MZ r= .32, DZ r= .15
Correlations between one twins own marital satisfaction and the OTHER twins
spouse (they are not married!
MZ r= .15, DZ r= .04
Similarity between twins and their spouses (they ARE married) in marital satisfaction.
MZ r = .61, DZ r= .61
Conclusion: The current relationship with a spouse matters, the past relationship with
parents does not.
Implications/Relevance
Marital satisfaction is not just a reflection of the quality of a relationship. Getting a
divorce may not make you happier because dissatisfaction could be due to your own
personality/genes!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by a spouses personality: Choose your spouse
carefully!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by relationship quality. You can do things to improve
marital satisfaction!
Similarity in personality is NOT important for relationship quality.
PART 2
What is well-being?
Subjective definition: Preference Realization
The match between an individuals actual and ideal life.
Genetic and Environment Influences
A Dutch twin/family study (Stubbe et al., 2004)
- MZ twins r= .38
- DZ twins r= .11
-Siblings r= .11
Danish twin study (Kohler et al., 2005)
- MZ r= .38
-DZ r= .18
Some evidence for heritability
- some additive, some non-additive effects
No evidence for shared environment effects
Stability and Change in Life Satisfaction:
National Representative Sample of Married Couples
Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel
- measured every year for over 20 years
Single-item question about life satisfaction
- similar to WVS question
Analyses based on 847 married couples.
Conclusion
~ 50% of the variance is stable (never changes)
- could reflect genetic effects
Less stability than personality traits
- suggests environmental effects
Spouses change in the same direction over time
- shows environmental effects
- suggests marriage influences life-satisfaction
High similarity for satisfaction with household income.
Low similarity for satisfaction with health.
How do personality traits influence life-satisfaction?
Schimmack, Diener, and Oishi (2002) proposed hedonic balance as a mediator.
Personality (Extraversion & Neuroticism) has direct effects on hedonic balance.
People rely on their affective experiences to judge life satisfaction.
As a result, personality has indirect effects on life-satisfaction that are mediated by
hedonic balance.
Facets of Neuroticism
Neuroticism is a Broad Disposition
There are more specific dispositions for different types of negative moods (anxiety,
anger, sadness).
Anxiety can be managed
- avoid stress & uncertainty
Anger can motivate actions to improve WB
- change jobs, get a discount
Depression is harder to regulate
- no meaning
- no clear or unattainable goals.
A Pospective Study of Life Satisfaction and Marriage
Participants. A 15-year longitudinal study of over 20,000 Germans. Data were
collected on an annual basis.
Materials.
-Life-satisfaction was assessed with a single-item that ranged from 0 (totally unhappy)
to 10 (totally happy).
- Year of marriage was also assessed.
Results
The authors determined the influence of marriage on life-satisfaction of those
participants who got married during the 15-year period.
Getting married was associated with a 0.23 point increase (on a 0 to 10 scale) in life
satisfaction.
Two-years after marriage life satisfaction returned to the same level as it was before
marriage!
Does that mean marriage has no effect on life satisfaction?
Week 11
Wednesday, November 28, 2018 12:23 PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 11 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Personality and Longevity
Does your personality influence your life-expectancy?
Longevity and a Healthy Life Style
How important is a healthy life-style for our longevity (i.e., how long we live?).
3457 Framingham Heart Study participants who were 30 to 49 years of age in 1948.
Measures
-Gender
-Smoking
-Body-Mass-Index (kg / m2)
[Example: BMI = 76 / 1.762 = 24.5]
- Mortality
Conclusion
Strong relation between predictor variables and mortality.
Non-smoking female participants with a healthy BMI had an 80% chance to be alive at
age 80.
Smoking male participants with an unhealthy BMI had a 20% chance to be alive at age
80.
Personality and Longevity
Lewis Terman initiated a longitudinal study of gifted children in the 1920s.
The participants in this study called themselves the termites.
Howard S. Friedman published numerous articles on predictors of longevity based on
this study.
The Terman Study
In 1921-22, Lewis Terman recruited over 1500 children (age 11) for a longitudinal
study (IQ > 135).
Parents rated childrens personality.
In 1940 (age 30) self-reports of personality.
In 1991, a Termite would have been 80 years old.
- leading causes of death were cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
- 58% were actually alive, 42% had died.
- High conscientiousness (top 25%): 63% alive
- Low conscientiousness (lowest 25%): 53% alive
Cheerfulness and Mortality
Cheerfulness was assessed by parent and teacher ratings in childhood.
Cheerfulness was measured with the items
- “cheerful/optmistic”
-“sense of humor”
Cheerfulness was a negative predictor of longevity.
(cheerful children were going to die earlier)
Sexual Behavior and Longevity
[Sex and Death: Freuds favorite topics]
Measures. Self-report of sexual behavior.
- Indulgence in petting, kissing, and spooning in high school
- Attitude towards sex at high school
Other Findings
The authors also examined other potential predictors of longevity.
Longevity was not related to:
- frequency of marital intercourse
- amount of sexual pleasure
- sexual upbringing (sex education)
Conclusion
Positive Emotions and Longevity
Participants. 180 Catholic US American nuns.
Method. Handwritten one-page autobiographies at the age of 22 were coded for
individual differences in the use of positive and negative words.
General Conclusion
There is good evidence that personality predicts longevity.
The exact mechanism are still unclear.
It is likely that some of these effects are due to personality effects on life-style factors
that influence health.
Personality and Relationships
Attachment Theory
Relationship Outcomes
Attachment Theory
Parents behavior determines childrens attachment style.
Sensitive and responsive parenting leads to secure attachment.
Childhood attachment styles have long-term consequences for social relationships
later in life.
Do you believe that this theory explains your own attachment style?
A. yes. B. No
Adult Attachment and Romantic Relationships
A brief self-report measure of adult attachment.
Relationship outcomes were assessed 8 months later.
Status. Currently in a romantic relationship.
[only for those in a relationship]
Length. Length of current romantic relationship.
Satisfaction. Satisfaction with romantic relationship.
Longitudinal Evidence
-First-born children from mothers living in poverty in 1975-1977.
- Infant attachment at 12 and 18 months with the stranger situation test.
- At age 20, measures of romantic relationship:
-Self-reported closeness
- Observer raters based on videotaped interactions.
Conclusion:
Longitudinal studies show that infant attachment styles and parent-child conflict
during childhood predict romantic relationship quality in adulthood.
Do these findings prove causality? A. Yes, B = No.
Behavioural Genetics Studies:
Adult Attachment
- Several studies have found negligible estimates for shared environment on adult
attachment styles.
At the same time, these studies showed genetic effects on adult attachment styles.
A Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
150 MZ and 176 DZ female twins
and their husbands!
Relationship Satisfaction scale of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale
Twin Study of Marital Satisfaction
Twin similarity in marital satisfaction:
MZ r= .32, DZ r= .15
Correlations between one twins own marital satisfaction and the OTHER twins
spouse (they are not married!
MZ r= .15, DZ r= .04
Similarity between twins and their spouses (they ARE married) in marital satisfaction.
MZ r = .61, DZ r= .61
Conclusion: The current relationship with a spouse matters, the past relationship with
parents does not.
Implications/Relevance
Marital satisfaction is not just a reflection of the quality of a relationship. Getting a
divorce may not make you happier because dissatisfaction could be due to your own
personality/genes!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by a spouses personality: Choose your spouse
carefully!
Marital satisfaction is influenced by relationship quality. You can do things to improve
marital satisfaction!
Similarity in personality is NOT important for relationship quality.
PART 2
What is well-being?
Subjective definition: Preference Realization
The match between an individuals actual and ideal life.
Genetic and Environment Influences
A Dutch twin/family study (Stubbe et al., 2004)
- MZ twins r= .38
- DZ twins r= .11
-Siblings r= .11
Danish twin study (Kohler et al., 2005)
- MZ r= .38
-DZ r= .18
Some evidence for heritability
- some additive, some non-additive effects
No evidence for shared environment effects
Stability and Change in Life Satisfaction:
National Representative Sample of Married Couples
Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel
- measured every year for over 20 years
Single-item question about life satisfaction
- similar to WVS question
Analyses based on 847 married couples.
Conclusion
~ 50% of the variance is stable (never changes)
- could reflect genetic effects
Less stability than personality traits
- suggests environmental effects
Spouses change in the same direction over time
- shows environmental effects
- suggests marriage influences life-satisfaction
High similarity for satisfaction with household income.
Low similarity for satisfaction with health.
How do personality traits influence life-satisfaction?
Schimmack, Diener, and Oishi (2002) proposed hedonic balance as a mediator.
Personality (Extraversion & Neuroticism) has direct effects on hedonic balance.
People rely on their affective experiences to judge life satisfaction.
As a result, personality has indirect effects on life-satisfaction that are mediated by
hedonic balance.
Facets of Neuroticism
Neuroticism is a Broad Disposition
There are more specific dispositions for different types of negative moods (anxiety,
anger, sadness).
Anxiety can be managed
- avoid stress & uncertainty
Anger can motivate actions to improve WB
- change jobs, get a discount
Depression is harder to regulate
- no meaning
- no clear or unattainable goals.
A Pospective Study of Life Satisfaction and Marriage
Participants. A 15-year longitudinal study of over 20,000 Germans. Data were
collected on an annual basis.
Materials.
-Life-satisfaction was assessed with a single-item that ranged from 0 (totally unhappy)
to 10 (totally happy).
- Year of marriage was also assessed.
Results
The authors determined the influence of marriage on life-satisfaction of those
participants who got married during the 15-year period.
Getting married was associated with a 0.23 point increase (on a 0 to 10 scale) in life
satisfaction.
Two-years after marriage life satisfaction returned to the same level as it was before
marriage!
Does that mean marriage has no effect on life satisfaction?
Week 11
Wednesday, November 28, 2018 12:23 PM
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This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
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