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Lecture 1

PSY240H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Models 1, Cortisol, Catecholamine


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H5
Professor
Norman Farb
Lecture
1

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Lecture 3 : mood disorders
What is mood disorder?
A psychological disorder characterized by the elevation or lowering of a person's
mood, such as depression or bipolar disorder.
Two major category of mood disorder:
1. Major depressive disorder
2. Bipolar disorder
At least 5 symptoms much occur for at least two weeks to be classified as mood disorder.
Suicide is the ultimate symptom for the mood disorder
The list of mood disorder found in dsm-5:
D 00 disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
D 01 major depressive disorder, single episode
D 02 major depressive disorder, recurrent
D 03 dysthymic disorder
D 04 premenstrual dysphoric disorder
D 05 substance-induced depressive disorder
D 06 depressive disorder associated with another medical condition
D 07 depressive disorder not elsewhere classified
Two major categories of depressive disorder : (mdd and pdd)
1. Major depressive disorder: it’s a mood disorder characterized by depressed
moon where one feel sad and empty without any sense of pleasure from their
activities
Symptoms :
oContinuous feeling of sadness
oLost of interest or in a ability to feel pressure(anhedonio)
oDifficulty making decision or concentrating
oDifficulty sleeping
oFatigue

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oDifficulty concentrating
oFeelings of worthlessness or guilt
oSuicidal thoughts,
oEither agitation or slowing down.
oIn the dsm-5 people who are mourning a recent death can be diagnosed
with depression if their symptoms meet the criteria for depression.
Prevalence and course of mdd
oAffect 5% of canadians but occurrence is more if they were previously
diagnosed with depression
oMostly affect people in 20s(mid)
oMdd mostly occur (comorbid) with anxiety – affect more than 50% of
people
oInd with more severe and chronic depression show slower and less
complete response to treatment
2. Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymic disorder) : is a depressed mood that
occurs for most of the day, for more days than not, for at least 2 years.
Symptoms :
oSame but less severe symptoms than major depression
oMajor feature is : it persists for at least two years with only brief times
when mood returns to normal.
oIndividuals with chronic depression are less likely to respond to standard
depression treatment than are those with episodic major depression
oMore women get mdd than men and more chances of women getting mdd
than men
Bipolar disorders
1. Mania : is defined as a distinct period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood
and increased goal-directed activity or energy that lasts at least one week.
Manic episode involve thoughts that are associated psychotic states.
Manic individuals often display:
oPressure of speech
o excessive self-esteem or grandiosity
o risky physical feats
oActivities than can cause in painful consequences excessive shopping
etc.
oOutlandish business practices
oIncreased sexual behavior.

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Some people say certain symptoms associated with mania is enjoyable.
2. Hypomania : is defined as a distinct period of elevated, expansive, or irritable
mood and increased activity or energy that lasts at least 4 consecutive days.
oIs a less severe form of mania involves a similar number of symptoms
oOnly need to be present for four days.
oInvolve no psychotic features
oThe episode is not severe enough to cause impairment in work or social
situation
3. Bipolar i : it include having at least one manic episode ( usually present with
depressive disorders)
oSymptoms are same as mania (inflated self esteem, decreased sleep, more
talkative etc.)
4. Bipolar ii for diagnosis the person must have at least one hypomanic episode
and one or more episodes od mdd
oLess severe than bipolar i
Bipolar i and bipolar ii
Bipolar i at least one manic episode
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