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Lecture

PSY318H5 Lecture Notes - Amyloid Precursor Protein, Chemical Synapse, Endoplasmic Reticulum


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY318H5
Professor
Ayesha Khan

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Neurons
Basic unit of the nervous system
Communication
How do they differ from other cells?
Three main functions:
Reception
Conduction
Transmission
Anatomy of Neurons & Glia
Cajal: was the first to demonstrate that the individual cells comprising the nervous system
remained separate
He showed that they did not grow into each other as previously believed
Like other cells in the body, neurons contain the following structures:
Membrane
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum
All neurons have the following major components:
Dendrites
Soma/cell body
Axon
Presynaptic terminals
Dendrites are branching fibers with a surface lined with synaptic receptors responsible for
bringing information into the neuron
Some dendrites also contain dendritic spines that further branch out and increase the surface area
of the dendrite
The greater the surface area of the dendrite, the more information it can receive
Terms used to describe the neuron include the following:
Afferent axon
Efferent axon
Interneurons or intrinsic neurons
Neurons vary in size, shape, and function
The shape of a neuron determines it connection with other neurons and contribution to the
nervous system
The function is closely related to the shape of a neuron
Example: Purkinje cells
Selective permeability
Phospholipids bi-layer
Ion channels (passive diffusion)
Voltage-dependent channels (require electrical changes)
Ligand-gated channels (require a “ligand”)
Sodium-potassium pumps (require energy)
Calcium pumps (require energy)
Alzheimer’s disease
Most common form of dementia
Dementia: loss of memory, judgment and reasoning, and changes in mood, behaviour, physical
and communicative abilities.
Loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex
Cortical gyri shrink
Ventricles become enlarged
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