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PSY100 Urbszat, D

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Dax Urbszat

PSY100 – Prof Urbszat LECTURE 2 - Research Method  Independent variable is the variable that is being manipulated  Dependent variable is that which you are trying to measure (depends on what the subjects do)  Everything else must be held constant  No study is definitive, must be repeated somewhere else with different subjects  Procedure has to be detailed so that the research can be replicated more effectively  The only difference is the independent variable  Random sample results represents population results  We tend to choose something that is familiar (not threatening)  Study has to be applicable in the real world to be useful  Measurement must be valid  Polygraph is an invalid measurement as it only measures anxiety level Naturalistic observation  Just observation, no alteration (like how biologist hide when observing animals, etc.)  Can’t isolate cause, can’t be sure what’s causing the effect. Only correlational  Help determine what experimental method should be used Surveys  Depends on who is asking the question  Questions can lead to obvious answers Case study  Not enough data Correlational  Positive correlation - when one variable goes up, the other variable goes up  Negative correlation - when one variable goes down, the other variable goes down  Some things just occur together while not having any relation Experimental research  Manipulation check - check whether the manipulated variable took effect Bias in research  Bias always exists o Sampling bias  PSY100 students is a bias sample o Placebo effect  Don’t know who it works and who it doesn’t work on  Have to lie, unethical o Social desirability bias  People can lie  People try to “help” the researcher  Impression management o Response sets  People are affected by what happened beforehand o Experimenter bias  Manipulate results to achieve hypotheses confirmation LECTURE 3 - Brain and Behaviour: Neuroscience  Glea is support and glue of the brain  Presynaptic is receiving  Most neurons are connected with thousands of neurons  Axon hillock: Where energy summates (fires neuron impulse)  Myelin sheaths: conductor of electricity, transfers impulse faster  Axons can be feet-long  Free nerve endings are end of axons (give info about heat etc.)  Terminal buttons house the neurotransmitter in vesicles  Graded potential is increasing or decreasing of energy  All messages in the brains is a chain of reaction  Resting potential is when nothing is happening  Postsynaptic is receiving, presynaptic is sending  Causes vesicles to jam against the membrane  Neurotransmitter will tell neuron to open Na channel or not  Re-uptaken to the terminal button if not bound to receptor or deactivated  Refractory period (can’t fire) - about 2ms Neurotransmitter  Acetylcholine: o required for motor action, learning, memory, sleep and linked to alzheimer's disease o Acetylcholine agonist: nicotine o Acetylcholine antagonist: curare - binds to acetylcholine receptors  Monoamine:
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