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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Emotions/ Language Development

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Elizabeth Johnson

PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 5 – February 4, 2014 EMOTIONS Early Emotional Development - Emotions: subjective reactions to the environment, usually accompanied by some form of physiological arousal and expressed in some form of behaviour - Infants are emotional o They expression their emotions early on – ie. Using facial expressions o Smiling and laughter are the first expressions of pleasure we recognize  Newborn infants display reflex smiles  Infants show preferences for human faces  Special smiles for mothers – Duchenne smiles  Not all babies smile with equal frequency; individual, cultural, and sex differences exist  Awide array of stimuli can make baby laugh Theoretical Perspectives on Emotional Development - Genetic-maturational perspective o Emotions have biological underpinnings o Identical and fraternal twin research - Learning perspective o Individual emotional expressions result from individual experiences o Experiences elicit and reinforce responses - Functionalist perspective o Help in achieving goals and adapting to the environment o Emotional signals (social cues) guide behaviours) Emotional Expressions - Primary/Basic Emotions o Interest, distress, disgust, and contentment (at birth) o Anger, sadness, joy, surprise, fear (emerge 2-7 months) o Biologically programmed? - Secondary/complex Emotions o In second year o Embarrassment, shame, guilt, envy, pride o Self-conscious or self-evaluative emotions o Initially, only expressed when adult is present Interpreting Others’Emotions - Recognizing facial emotion o 3 months – discrimination o 5-7 months – categorization, understanding? - Social referencing (7-10 months) o Something new comes in your environment, and you don’t know what to do, so you look at your mom to see how she interacts - Empathy (18-24 months, conversations) Recognizing Emotions in Others - In general, children are more proficient at producing than at recognizing emotions - The two abilities are positively related: children who are skilled at one are typically skilled at the other ATTACHMENT PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 5 – February 4, 2014 Attachment - Attachment emerges over the first 6 to 8 months in a consistent series of steps o (1) Newborns display a preference for humans over inanimate objects o (2) Soon after birth infants learn to discriminate familiar people from unfamiliar ones o (3) Babies develop attachments to specific people (typically mother first) Signs ofAttachment - Stranger anxiety o Negative reactions of infants to an unfamiliar person - Separation anxiety o Negative reactions of infants when the caregiver temporarily leaves - Greeting reactions o Positive reactions from the infant when the caregiver returns - Secure-base behaviours o Behaviour in which the infant uses the caregiver for exploration o Ie. this is a safe place to explore the world, since mom is behind me watching Theories of Attachment - Psychoanalytic theory: (feeding) o Freud: Oral gratification o Erikson: responsiveness  trust/mistrust - Learning theory: (reward) o Food is primary reinforce o Mother becomes secondary reinforcers - Harlow and Zimmerman’s “Surrogate Mother” research (1959): o Is feeding or contact comfort the cause of attachment? o The monkeys went to the cloth mothers for comfort when they were scared or placed in a new environment, regardless if the clothed mother didn’t provide milk for the baby monkeys John Bowlby –Attachment Theory - Influence of Ethology: o All species are born with a number of innate behavioural tendencies that contribute to the survival of the species over the course of evolution o These “built-in behaviours” are specially designed to promote attachment relationships o Parents and babies are biologically predisposed to form attachments st - Attachment relationships develop from parent-infant interactions over the 1 year of life AssessingAttachment - Childhood attachment is often measured using the Strange Situation test: o Children are separated and reunited with the caregiver o Evaluates the use of the caregiver as a safe haven and a secure base - The Strange Situation procedure (Ainsworth et al., 1978) o Experimenter introduces parent and infant to playroom and leaves o Parent sits while baby plays o Stranger enters, sits, talks to parent o Parent leaves o Parent returns and greet baby, stranger leaves o Parent leaves PSY210H5 – Introduction to Developmental Psychology Lecture 5 – February 4, 2014 o Stranger enters and offers comfort o Parent returns, comforts, engages baby with toys Attachment Styles - Secure (65%) o Infant explores while mother is present o Upset when mother leaves o Greet mother warmly upon her return, seeks her for comfort o Firently to stranger when mother present - Resistant (10%) o Infant stays close to mother; upset when she leaves o Explores very little in mother’s presence o Ambivalent when she returns o Wary of stranger at all times - Avoidant (20%) o Very little distress when mother leaves o Seems to ignore mother o May be sociable with or ignore stranger - Disorganized/disoriented (5-10%) o Seem to both approach and avoid mother o May act dazed or freeze Role of Parents? - Quality of attachment is influenced greatly by early caregiver-child interactions - Styles of caregiving o Secure attachment is associated with sensitive caregiving, which is consistent and responsive Role of Culture? - Check textbook for discussion of the graph? LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT What is Language? - Acommunication system in which words and their written symbols combine in various, regulated ways to produce an infinite number of messages (page 253) Five Components of Language - Phonology o Phonemes: basic units of sound and language  /p/ and /b/ - Morphology o Rules for how sounds form words  Past tense adds –ed  Plurals ass ‘s’ - Semantics o Meaning of words and parts of words
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