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Lecture 6

PSY210 lecture 6 .doc

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Elizabeth Johnson

PSY210 lecture 6 feb 13/2012. Moral Development (Tina Malti): • What is morality? Manner, character, proper behaviour • Morality stems from philosophy, principles. • Moral ideas: its important for society to move forward, responsible individuals, • Movie atrocity: obedience to authority. 65% of people continued till the end. • Morality, is about disobeying orders sometimes and do what YOU think is right. • Early psychologists saw children as egoist being because they always wanted to do what they wanted and put their needs first. • Revolution in the thinking. Piaget: child as a moral philosopher, • Kohlberg: children’s moral thinking is influenced by social relationships. • Piaget: Heteronomous morality: child’s sticks to authority, and following rules • Autonomous morality: child’s selectively applies rules, and does some critical thinking. learn to negotiate and social interactions. • Stages of moral development Lawrence Kohlberg: identified 6 stages. • Kohlberg studied morality by asking people with situations about moral dilemma. Preconventional: focus on self (young kids), conventional: focus on the group (most adults), post conventional: focus on justice (ethicists). • Stage #1: obedience and punishment orientation. Conscience= self-protection. Punishment orientation is completely external to the self. • Stage #2: instrumental- relativist orientation: action is judged right if it helps in satisfying ones needs or involves a fair exchange. • Stage #3: obligation to ones family, gang etc. conscience = group loyalty. One earns acceptance by being “nice” • Stage #4: Law and order orientation: following society as a whole, obeying laws to maintain social order. What is right? • Stage #5: Social Contract: loyalty to truth, conscience= reason. What should be right? • Stage #6: Universal ethical and principle orientation: principles, no matter what the price. Conscience = personal integrity. • Criticized that it is hierarchical and it mostly depends on context most of the time cause kids might argue stage #1 in one situation and stage #2 in some situations. • Social Domain Theory: Personal: judgements about personal preferences. Depends on culture and context. Conventional: rules that are imposed by the society, rituals etc. Psychological domain: autonomy, individual choice. • Age related changes in moral judgments: • others welfare: basic, • distribution of resources: form of sharing, basic moral code. • Psychological harm (teasing): complex. • Rights (individual rights): complex. • Exclusion (group membership): complex. • Context of diversity: increased diversity encourages tolerance, increased diversity reveals stereotypes, exclusion and prejudice in childhood. • Intergroup inclusion and exclusion: requires both cognitive capacity and social understanding. Intragroup (ingroup), intergroup (outgroup). • Contrasting characteristics: children understand concepts of justice, fairness and equality but they also form ingroups and have stereotypes about outgroups so how do they balance these two sides. • Research questions: is exclusion viewed as unfair? OR is exclusion viewed as something to preserve ingroup. • STUDY: interviewed preschool- aged children about gender exclusion in play activities, two contexts. Straightforward: two girls playing with dolls, and a boy wants to come and play. Most children answer from moral point of view. complex: girls are playing, they have to pick a girl or a guy. The children answer the girl because of stereotypes. • Moral emotions: self-conscious emotions, important part why children adhere or fail to adhere to their own moral standards. • The “happy victimizer” paradigm: child brings chocolate, and put it in the jacket. And another kid takes it. 4 year old: good. 8 year old: fear from other teachers. 12 year old: guilt. • Moral emotions: empathy: effective response that stems from the apprehension of another’s emotional state • Sympathy: concerned about others well being • Personal distress: self focused, aversive affective reaction to the apprehension of anothers emotional state. Feeling unpleasant. • How do emotio
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