Class Notes (810,237)
Canada (494,016)
Psychology (4,099)
PSY210H5 (299)

PSY210 Lecture 2.doc

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Elizabeth Johnson

January 09/2012 Lecture 2 PSY210 - Developmental psychology defined: scientific study of changes or continuities in an organism between initial conception and death. - Child development : gradual evolution of child’s cognitive, social, and other capacities first by describing change in child’s observed behaviours and then uncovering the processes and strategies that underlie these changes - Historical roots: plato: experience is not the souce of human knowledge because our senses are too fallible. - Plato: Children enter the world armed with innate knowledge about the world and experience simply riggers this pre-existing knowledge. nativist - Aristotle: opposite view than plato. Empiricist - Nativist: emphasizes the role of nature or innate factors in development - Empiricist: emphasises the role of experience. - John locke: childs mind is a blank slate. With Aristotle. Gain knowledge through experience - Jaques Rousseau: children enter the world with innate knowledge.with plato - EMPIRCIST: ARISTOTLE, LOCKE, WATSON - NATIVIST: ROUSSEAU, PLATO - During the renaissance, many kids were pulled out of school and worked in factories abandoning this created the question of if all children are created equal? - Fetal development: - first trimester: the embryonic stage begins 3 to 4 weeks following fertilization. Most body parts including the nervous system and limbs are formed - Second trimester: fetus is 12 to 15 inches long and mother can feel their movements - Third trimester: fetus reaches the age of viability (22-26 weeks): meaning that the child can survive if born early, ear and eye become structurally complete, rapid expansion of the cerebrum and myelination of the - spinal cord. - Third trimester: eyelids open, retina sensitive to light, amniotic fluid tastes like what mother ate, auditory system begins experience sound, taste receptors become functional - Fetal auditory system: all sounds that reach the womb are low pass filtered (high frequencies removed) physiological noises are the first to be heard by fetus. - Mothers voice is most salient external stimulation that reaches the fetus. - Experience begins in the womb: amniotic fluid flavoured by what the mother has eaten (as is the breast milk) - newborns prefer to listen to: - Their mothers voice over another woman voice - Their mothers native language over another language. - The acoustics of a newborns cry exhibits distinctive characteristics of the mothers native language. - Young infants recognize stories and music they were exposed to while still in the womb. - The cry sounds like the intonation in the language. Experience & Genetics - Personality traits and cognitive abilities in partly- determined by genetic inheritance. Determined by moms state of mind during pregnancy. - Fetal development: many aspects of human physical and emotion development are genetically encoded. - Early development unfolds according to a well-defined plan. - Experience begins before birth, and affects the behaviour of the fetus - Maternal behaviour during pregnancy can have a long-lasting impact on her childs development. - Questions developmental psychologists typically ask - Question 1: Nature vs nurture - What roles do biology and environment have on the kids - Question 2: is development continuous or stage like? Whether developmental changes best described as qualitative changes or quantitative changes? Do children have different ways of solving questions or just not as good? - Question 3: What drives changes? Contributions from external environment. And contributions from children themselves. Is it development passive or active? Does a childs innate endowment impact her environment? - Question 4: domain interaction? Do different core abilities develop independently or in concert? – can cognitive development be understood without considering social development? Yes can social development be understood without considering perceptual development? No - Question 5: how predictive and critical are the early stages of development? For example Is a fussy 3 month old destined to become an irritable adult? Another question are IQ increases due to environmental stimulation maintained over the course of the life, or are they only temporary? - Types of theoretical approaches psychologists use to address these questions: - What is a developmental theory: an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development - Theories generate developmental hypotheses(which are testable predictions for describing and explaining development) - Approaches to development: theories can be grouped according to the type of approach they take to studying development - Approaches to development: biological, structural- organismic, learning, contextual. 1) biological approach: maturational theory by Gessel -experience is n
More Less

Related notes for PSY210H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.