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Lecture 9

PSY210 Lecture 9.docx

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Elizabeth Johnson

REVIEW Piaget vs. Vygotsky - Vygotsky – cog develop varies across cultures. Thought that cog growth stems from social interactions - Piaget – his theory was supposed to be universal. Piaget thought it stems from independent exploration where child constructs knowledge on his own What is intelligence? Unitary or multifaceted? Genetic or environmental? Psychologists don’t agree on one definition Does it predict success in school as well as out of school? Concepts of intelligence: Spearman (1904) - intelligence is one-dimensional, rep by a general factor –g—associated with “mental energy” - specific knowledge and abilities evident in specific tasks –s— Psychometrics: - measurement of psychological traits/abilities - using standardized tests to identify individual differences -Psychometrician – designer of intelligence tests (always guided by a particular theory of intelligence) - test norms are the values or sets of values that describe the typical performance of a specific group of people (pg 392) Test validity and reliability: - validity is the extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure (pg 393) - reliability is the degree to which a tests yields consistent results over successive administration (pg 393) Psychometrics vs. Piaget: - individual differences rather than commonalities in development - quantitative rather than qualitative - concerned with products (IQ scores) rather than underlying processes (theories), unlike Piaget - pragmatic rather than theoretical Intelligence tests 1. Stanford binet intelligence scale (2-adulthood) - yield 4 scores (verbal, reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, quantitaving reasoning, and sTM) plus overall IQ score 2. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children:WISC III (6-16 yrs) - verbal IQ, performance (non verbal IQ), and full scale IQ Weakness of both tests: both tests are culturally biased. Children in western culture do better than other region’s children - we need a culture fair test 3. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children: (2-12 yrs): culture fair test - 2 subscales and a composite scale Weakness of all tetss: - can only infer intellectual capacity from the results of an IQ test - we can only measure performance not capacity even though we assume both are related - always same gap b/w capacity and performance due to factors like emotional state (children moving b.w lots of foster homes tend to show unstable IQ) Achievment motivations: - mastery-oriented children: do not give up easily when faced with hard questions - helpless: blame themselves and give up when faced with hard questions Tests for infants: - bayley scales of infant development - Fagan test of infant intelligence: how quickly children habituate to something and how bored they get with a continuous stimulus Psychometirc Testing: the Good: - IQ is relatively stable form early childhood - Can be measure accurately and reliably - predicts several important real world outcome variable in childhood and adulthood Is intelligence malleable? - IQ is intelligence. - difficult to say if intelligence is malleable - so lets ask if IQ is malleable? Yes it is Today’s Lecture: Nature Vs. Nurtre - organized, stimulating home environments are associated with higher IQs. - does tv affect children’s development in positive manner? - - studies suggest that children do not learn words from watching TV - tested 12 to 18 months olds who watched baby Einstein several times a week main finding: no more learning than the control group - best learning in children who simply played with adults - most pediatricians advise no screen time for children under 2 Nurture half of the equation: - IQ scores are influenced by environmental factors Prenatal influences: - mothers who are emotionally stressed during pregnancy may have infants who are hyperactive, irritable, and or having feeding and sleep problems - a pregnant mother nutritional deficiencies which interfere with healthy prenatal development also intensify adverse effects of drugs that mother has ingested. Negative effect of a teratogen is intensified if mother is stressed during pregnancy - mother’s diet informs fetus about local circumstances, so fetus can calibrate physiology to best match circumstances - Girls who grow up with a father experience puberty later than girls who grow up in a home with no father - A father’s investment in his offspring does not occur in all species and varies widely across human societies - in impoverished environment, where dad cant hold a job, guys are less likely to be family type - Man is more likely to abuse his step child than his biological child Early Socialization: - socialization is a process by which parents and other ensure that a child’s standards of behavior, attitudes, skills, and motives conform closely to those deemed appropriate to his/her role in society (424) - socialization is not just parents shaping children’s behavior, it is a mutual shaping process The Family System: - contrary to early views (eg Watson), parents are not all that matter - families don’t operate in isolation, as they are influenced by the larger settings they exists with in - parents and children influence one another - families are part
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