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Lecture 5

PSY240 Lecture 5.docx

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Hywel Morgan

PSY240 Lecture 5 - Feb 4, 2013 Theoretical Approaches in Abnormal Psychology - continuation of lecture 4  biomedical theories - usually referred to as etiological theories (what causes abnormal behaviour)  depression also effectively treated using psychotherapy  psychotherapy and medication both as effective as each other, research shows  o medication preferred b/c a lot cheaper o when both used together more effective  Szasz 3 problems with the biomedical model  o 1. disease should not be a causal explanation for problems in living (social problems) and beliefs that a person holds o 2. mental illness has become widely accepted as referring to deviations from psychosocial, legal and ethical norms o  illogical to treat medically if defined in non-med criteria o 3. with exception of schizophrenia, its not clear what the biomedical mechanisms of other diseases are  Psychosocial theories  o PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES o  Freud first notable person to pose psychodynamic theory (physician, not father of psychology)  Freud said intrapsychic (subconscious) conflict is cause of all abnormal behaviours   starts in childhood memories  free association specific therapy used in psychodynamic psychotherapy   also called "talking therapy"  client talks abt whatever they want, free speech  not looking at therapist, no interruption by therapist  therapist interrupts when there is a freudian slip   slip of information from subconscious o BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES o  the first psychologists  wanted to study psych. behaviour from a scientific point of view  very interested in observation, not interested in thoughts of people, only behaviours  discovery of conditioning: classical and operant   classical discovered by Pavlov  operant discovered by Thorndike  therapies do not require verbal communication  most species can be conditioned (most basic form of learning) o COGNITIVE THEORIES o  acknowledgement that behaviours and thoughts can be learned wrong  came out in the 50s/60s o HUMANISTIC THEORIES o  also formed in the 50s/60s  humanistic approach to therapy   therapist asks you to sit in front of the mirror and say to yourself: "I'm wonderful", "I'm worth it", and hug yourself and smile when you say it  all behaviours have worth  somewhere you have it within yourself to make youself better   resources to make yourself better within the person himself  try to get person to understand all of themselves in terms of functionality and capabilities  respects person's right to make their own choices  requires fairly sophisticated understanding of self  not effective with children b/c talking therapy   b/c don't have well developed individual who has capacity to fully understand the self  not effective for ppl with schizophrenia Lecture 5  PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  o assessment occurs before diagnosis typically o  assessment is also ongoing b/c want to see progress of treatment o REFERRAL o   initial assessment ("quick and dirty" assessment)  physicians assistants, psychiatric nurse, nurse practitioner, also some professions that can provide a referral upon initial assessment   provide information on onset, duration and medical status, also gathering information on motivation level of patient/client  SOCIAL WORKER  PSYCHOLOGIST  PHYSICIAN o THREE TYPES OF ASSESSMENT (formal assessment) o  interview + observation used to formulate a diagnosis   2 cautions: clinician/therapist keeps in mind before they start are   1. clinician only observing persons behaviour at one point in time in artificial environment (office) not natural environment  2. distinct possibility of observer bias, referral content has biggest potential for observer bias (b/c specialist already forming hypothesis in their mind)
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