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Lecture 11

PSY240 Lecture 11 MARCH.docx

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Hywel Morgan

PSY240 Lecture - 11 March, 2013 Child Disorders  adolescence legally defined as someone under the age of 18  brain growth typically ends in your early twenties  "pairing" - significant loss of neurons in infancy  term adolescence loosely defined  childhood and adolescent disorders are disorders that are typically first diagnosed in childhood and adolescence  historically, children treated like miniature adults.  o required to work/pull their own weight, get married, wore mini-adult clothing  field of clinical psychology not been around for more than 60 yrs  MODERN CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY  o roots of child psychology can be traced back to the 1920s and 30s o  university sponsered nurseries specifically set-up to look at the behaviour of children  controlled environments that provided an ideal setting for extensive research on children  mental retardation first disorder of childhood undeniably recognized all over the world as a disorder  second disorder is autism, not called autism at first  Dr. Leo Kanner widely recognized as founder of child psychology, coined the term "infantile autism" in the 1950s  first DSM came out in the 50s, incl. two disorders first recognized in childhood/adolescence   mental retardation and  childhood schizophrenia (now called 'autism')  DSM INITIALLY HAD TWO CATEGORIES o  DSM IV - 10 MAJOR CATEGORIES  o childhood depression major symptoms incl. irritability and aggression (although there needs to be a lot more research on that) o by 1960s most child disorders not being treated by child psychologists, most treated by pediatricians o Dr. Benjamin Spock: wrote lots of books famous pediatrician treated childhood psychopathology in the 60s o establishment of graduate programs in childhood psycho-pathologies 1. MENTAL RETARDATION   DSM-IV diagnosis based solely on intelligence quotient (IQ) which can lead to misdiagnosis   depressed people will not score well on an IQ test o  MILD   those who are scoring between 55 - 70 IQ  MODERATE   IQ 40 - 55  SEVERE   IQ 20 - 40  PROFOUND   less than 20 IQ  NEW DEFINITIONS   most people who diagnose will not only use IQ as criteria, also use concept of adaptive functioning: how well you change to your enviroment  in new definition will also include adaptive functioning  coded on Axis II  relatively permanent disorder 2. LEARNING DISORDERS - include all deficits where child falls behind his/her developmental norm and learning with extreme difficulty - stipulates that you are mentally ill if you fall behind your peers - learning disorders particularly controversial - a learning disorder is not an attention deficit disorder - READING - MATH - WRITING 3. MOTOR SKILL DISORDERS  DEVELOPMENTAL COORDINATION DISORDER  Movements expected to develop from general to more specific, involves milestones 4. COMMUNICATION DISORDERS  EXPRESSIVE DISORDER  Unclear poorly pronounced English, grammatically incorrect  May be a sign of a neurological problem, not psychological  MIXED EXPRESSIVE-RECEPTIVE  Child has difficulty in both speaking and understanding language  Seen developing usually in adulthood (called aphasia)  E.g. stroke, may be neurological  Axis III tries to rule out biological condition  PHONOLOGICAL  Pronunciation  Children substitute one sound for another  STUTTERING  Not clear what causes it  Stuttering does spontaneously remit (grow out of it for many children) 5. PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISO
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