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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 For those of you who missed class, these notes have all the lecture slides and my own notes taken integrated together in one neat word document. Great for last minute studying!

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Ayesha Khan

PSY240 Lecture 6 Chapter 6: Panic, Anxiety, and Their Disorders  Anxiety: uneasiness associated w/ an event that might occur. More general.  Panic: physiologcal aspect and sypmtoms, here and now, measurable, overt The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns • Fear or panic is a basic emotion that involves activation of the “fight-or-flight” response – Fear is more pronounced than panic – Lots of anxiety can lead to panic – Fight/flight = evol’nary responses • Different components – Cognitive: feeling within, not actually real – Physiological – Behavioural – Peripheral Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Sympathetic: gets you ready for dangerous situations. Instant reponse. -One neuron is from CNS form synapse (Ach released)  goes to affect the functioning of another neuron (ex. Heart)  then releases NE to activate heart to pump blood faster Parasympathetic: resting/digesting, takes time to kick in -Ach is an important NT for both synapses and periphery -2 neurons, one to neuron The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns • Anxiety is a general feeling of apprehension about possible danger – Anxiety is more oriented to the future and more diffuse than fear • (panic/fear = here and now) – It has cognitive/subjective, physiological, and behavioural components • Subjective: very personal • Physiological: ex.stress • Behavioural • The Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities PSY240 Lecture 6 • Anxiety disorders have unrealistic, irrational fears or anxieties of disabling intensity as their most obvious manifestation – Rational to the person, but overall don’t make a lot of sense. – If the anxiety is interfering on their everyday life = irrational • Evolutionary preparedness for the development of fears and phobias – When we all feel the same way about something • Many of our fears and anxieties are learned (classical conditioning) – Ex. Young child views father abuse mother at the same time everyday  fuels anxiety (classical conditioning) The Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities • The DSM-IV-TR recognizes seven primary types of anxiety disorders 1. Phobic disorders of the “specific” type • Not general, specific to a situation, but still unrealistic. Public speaking = more scary than death??? IRRATIONAL 2. Phobic disorders of the “social” type • Also can be lumped into dealing w/ other people. 3. Panic disorder with agoraphobia • Agoraphobia= being out in a public space. • Ex. The person might have had a panic disorder in a public place and now they are afraid of being in public.  not necessarily afraid of people. 4. Panic disorder without agoraphobia • Without agoraphobia 5. Generalized anxiety disorder • ex. School, work, parents, siblings, etc. 6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder • OCD: obsessed w/ doing something repeatedly. 7. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder • PTSD: lumped under anxiety disorder, b/c associated w/ the future. • If you have a panic disorder, it’s not just thinking about here and now, it’s also about NEXT panic attack. The Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities • There are some important similarities – The basic biological causes of these disorders – The basic psychological causes of these disorders – The effective treatments for these disorders Phobic Disorders • A phobia is a persistent and disproportionate fear of some specific object or situation that presents little or no actual danger • The DSM-IV-TR lists three main categories of phobias: – Specific phobia: to an object/situation/person – Social phobia: socially mediated context – Agoraphobia: fear of public places b/c the event happened outside the home. • Phobia: NEED TO KNOW THE DEF’N to be concrete in abnormal psych!** • Anxiety disorder/panic disorder = need to know the distinction!** Common Specific Phobias Acrophobia Heights PSY240 Lecture 6 Algophobia Pain Astraphobia Thunderstorms Claustrophobia Enclosed places Hydrophobia Water Monophobia Being alone Mysophobia contamination Nychtophobia Darkness Pyrophobia Fire Zoophobia Zoo Specific Phobias • Blood-injection-injury phobia occurs in about 3–4% of the population • 12% lifetime prevalence rate • 75% of people with specific phobia have at least one other specific fear • Specific fear varies by gender – Females are more likely to disclose phobias than males • The age of onset for different phobias varies widely – Zoophobia tends to occur in childhood – Claustrophobia tends to occur in adolescence • Blood-injection-injury phobia = intense fear of human blood. • “less than 5%” for MC question. **need to know some of these stats* • -drop in BP and HR and dizziness = symptoms Specific Phobias • Phobias as learned behaviours • Vicarious Conditioning of phobic fears – Vicarious conditioning = watching someone else going through the experience which results in phobia • Ex. Lab monkeys are not afraid of snakes VS wild monkeys who are very afraid of snakes – Lab monkey will only start having the fear after watching the wild monkey experiencing anxiety from seeing the snake.  phobia can develop in a matter of minutes and last for months. • Sources of individual differences in the learning of phobias – Does the direct and vicarious conditioning model explain it all? – Given all the traumas that people undergo, why don’t more people develop phobias? – Importance of prior familiarity with an object/situation – Events that occur prior to/during/after a conditioning experience – Cognitions and thoughts – Genetic and temperamental factors Treating Specific Phobias • Exposure therapy • Other (exposure) therapies include – Participant modeling – Virtual reality therapies – Combining cognitive techniques with exposure-based therapies CBT= Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Exposure theory: [systematic exposure] - start talking about it PSY240 Lecture 6 - sit in car but not drive - sit in car and drive Other: - therapist models the event - virtual reality setup Social Phobia • Involves disabling fears of one or more discrete social situations – Because there is negative evaluation of behaviour! • Between 3 and 7% of Canadians experience clinically significant social phobia in a given year. • Social phobias generally involve learned behaviours shaped by evolutionary factors • Such learning is most likely to occur in people who are genetically or temperamentally at risk – Tempermental toddlers have a risk of developing social phobia • Perceptions of uncontrollability and/or unpredictability may be important – Negative cognitions and schema also a risk factor • 56-58% of people recalled and identified direct traumatic experiences – Associated w/ being criticized/negative social interaction • 92% reported strong history of teasing during childhood • 13% reported vicarious learning • Importance of parental phobias – Potential dangers in the environment – Strengthening of avoidant tendencies Evolution • Social fears and phobias evolved as a consequence of dominance hierarchies – People have dominant hierarchies too • Evolutionarily based predisposition – *test* think about evol’nary bases* •
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