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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Theoretical Perspectives

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Hywel Morgan

PSY240H5 – Introduction toAbnormal Psychology Lecture 4 – January 27, 2014 Biological Models - The Role of the Nervous System - The Role of Chemistry o Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones = influence control of behaviour o Neuropeptide is now used to control behaviour - Genetics and Behaviour Psychosocial Theories - Psychodynamic theories o Behaviour is internally driven o It doesn’t require biological explanation; it is a theory of mind o Psychoanalytic theory (and psychodynamic) are often used interchangeably o It is the theory that you haven’t progressed the developmental stages f mind in a satisfactory way o Freud suggested treatment: try to uncover this conflict; so you can deal with your inability to pass this stage of develop o Free association – say what you got to say (for psychodynamic) o In psychoanalysis, there is no feedback, and you let them come to a conclusion on their own o Classic psychodynamic approach = psychopathology is due to faulty thinking - Behavioural theories o Looking at overt behaviours o The behavioural come out at around the same time as Freud, and discovered the main principles of learning and memory o Classical Conditioning - o Operant Conditioning – o B.F. Skinner – the most famous behaviour theorist  Says that you are a sum of your parts  You are what you have learnt; nothing more and nothing less o Treatment for psychopathology: relearn - Cognitive theories o Based on what you have learnt o Your mind processes the information in an individualistic way o You have thoughts, which speaks to the freewill component o Therapy: useful for a condition like depression o Acognitive theorists, might use therapy using a thought challenge  You think your stupid, lets look at that  Not trying to change the behaviour, but challenging the thought o Somewhere along to the way, you have learned that thought incorrectly o Example: depression  Overt behaviour: severely depressed  Behavioural therapy: do something  Cognitive therapy: interested in changing the thought - Humanistic theories o Is a branch of psychology, mostly used in application in clinical psychology o It is the theory that inside of you, you have the tools to solve your own problems PSY240H5 – Introduction toAbnormal Psychology Lecture 4 – January 27, 2014 o Provide you an environment in which to express yourself and find the tools you already possess, to heal yourself Cross-Section of the Brain - There are three cross sections: sagittal, medial-sagittal, coronal - The hindbrain evolved first, and the forebrain evolved last o The forebrain performs functions that are much more sophisticated than the hindbrain - Forebrain: o Cerebral cortex o Thalamus o Hypothalamus - Midbrain: o Subconsciously moves us away from stimuli and towards stimuli - Hindbrain: o The most basic functions:  Heart beat, breathing, staying conscious o Cerebellum o Pons o Medulla Source ofAll Behaviour - According to the biological models, the brain is the source to all behaviour - Peripheral NS o Incoming sensory information (5 components) o Major component: movement - Central NS o Main component: brain and spinal cord o Spinal cord is involved in involuntary movement (Reflexes) (although voluntary movements go through spinal cord, but processes through the brain) o This is the source to all behaviour - Studied by: (with slightly different perspectives o Neurologist:  Typically someone with a PhD, but someone with an MD  Clinicians, who are interested not only structure, but the function of the brain  specifically the dysfunction of the brain o Psychiatrist  Are MD, and also interested in dysfunction, but from a biochemical perspective o Anatomist  Interested in how components of the brain interact with each other  Study the structure of the brain  Training is biology; PhD o Neuropsychologist  Interested in brain dysfunction from a cognitive behavioural perspective Hindbrain PSY240H5 – Introduction toAbnormal Psychology Lecture 4 – January 27, 2014 - Medulla: controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure o Damage to medulla leads to death - Pons: regulation of sleep/wake cycle - Cerebellum: involved in balance and coordination of movement o Damage cerebellum = exhibit behaviour such as drunken sailor syndrome (not balanced and movement is uncoordinated Midbrain - The relay point for hearing and vision - One of the places pain and pleasure is registered - Brain structures found in midbrain: o Superior colliculus  Relay point for visual information  Important for orienting us towards or away from visual stimuli  Example: someone throws a hat at you, and without realizing it, your hand reached out to catch it o Inferior colliculus  Relay point for auditory information  Orients you away or t
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