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Lecture 4

Lecture 4- Short term memory.docx

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Christine Burton

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Jan 28 2014 Short Term Memory Week 4 WHAT DO WE WANT TO KNOW ABOUT MEMORY?  Memory researchers are concerned with the type of things our memory can hold (structure/code)  Memory researchers are concerned with the limiting factors of memory: capacity and duration.  Memory researchers are concerned with the processes that allow information to enter and exit memory DECLARATIVE MEMORY  Atkinson-Shiffrin (1968) multi-store (modal) model  Classic Structural , Serial (info passes from one to next), Modular  There are 3 memory stores ( modes) :  Sensory (very short)  Short-term  Long term  Control Process: keep active within a store or move info along the three stores. SENSORY MEMORY  A limited capacity store that holds basic sensory information for a very limited amount of time.  We have a different store for each of our senses  Vision: Iconic memory. Ex. writing your names with Sparklers  Auditory: Echoic memory  Attention is the process that helps pass items in sensory store on to short-term memory SPERLING’S SENSORY STORE INVESTIGATION  How much can we encode during a single, brief instance? The capacity?  Presented participants with letter very quickly and took them away  How much can we encode during a single, brief instance?  When asked to remember as many letters as they can (whole report), people can only remember 3-4 items.  Cold report: asked to report the whole thing.  Duration is so short that people forget the items before they can report them all?? maybe problem is duration and not capacity. Maybe they remembered all of them but couldn’t report them fast enough SPERLING’S PARTIAL REPORT PROCEDURE  How much can we encode during a single, brief instance?  When cued to report one row only (partial report), people could remember approximately 3 items in that row (82%)  High top: top line/ Middle tone: middle line/ Low tone: lowest line.  He reasoned that they must be remembering 82% of the entire thing.  In order to remember any one at random. You have to remember all. 9-12 is the capacity of iconic memory, limiting factor is the duration. Memory drops of very quick, between 150MS. It drops quickly but then t plateaus. Repeating info leads the info to short term Jan 28 2014 Short Term Memory Week 4 memory. Capacity of attention is about 4 items, afterwards it moved to short term memory. SPERLING’S PARTIAL REPORT PROCEDURE SENSORY MEMORY  Similar evidence for brief sensory stores in other modalities  Echoic memory tends to have a longer duration (~3-4s). Longer than iconic memory. What about capacity? How would u measure it though? It’s based on duration. We can’t talk about capacity without talking about duration. SENSORY MEMORY- RECAP  Structure:  A system that stores unprocessed sensory info  Different Sensory stores for each modality  Capacity:  Iconic: 9-12 items.  Duration:  Very short ( 150 Ms for ICONIC , 4 s for Echoic  Process:  Attention. SHORT-TERM MEMORY (STM)  A limited capacity store that holds information for a relatively brief period  Remember this phone number:  4169254729  Remember this phone number:  Couldn’t rehearse STM: DURATION  Without rehearsal the duration of STM is only a few seconds (~10-30 s)  Rehearsal is the process that keeps information in STM and helps pass it on to long- term memory Jan 28 2014 Short Term Memory Week 4 STM: CAPACITY  George Miller proposed the “Magical Number 7±2” is the capacity of STM  Each ‘slot’ can hold one item.  To learn more, you must replace with an already filled spot.  What is an item? What goes into slot?  Something that holds meaning – semantics  A letter  Names  STM CAN HOLD 7_+2 MEANINGFUL CHUNKS WHAT MAKES THE CHUNKS MEANING  Bower & Springston experiment:  Show a list of items.  CIA NFL KLM  Grouping them creates a meaning encoding mechanism. Acronyms are in long term memory.  It is easier to recall (2) because acronyms are meaningful units in LTM.  So we chunk info in STM on the basis of info we already have in LTM. WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE OF STM (what code do we use to store chunks)? Digit span is a measure of STM: how many # a person can remember. It’s a function of first language. Eng. speakers have a higher digit span than others. In Eng. the mean # of syllables is more than 3. In Arabic it’s more than 2. The more syllables the lower digit span. Eng. can reach more words in a sec than Spanish, Hebrew, or Arabic. Digit span is grater more syllables. - Letters in first row rhyme. Second row does not. - STM is smaller for rhyming lists (even though info presented visually – Phonological similarity effect. - -Structure: Info in STM is stored ACOUSTICALLY.
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