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Lecture 6

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY270H5
Professor
Christine Burton
Semester
Summer

Description
Monday February 22 2010PSY270 Lecture 6 So well start with imageryI just realized that I misled you all when last class I said that were going to be continuing on with memorywere actually going to be talking about memory next class not this classthis class were talking about imageryImageryFebruary222010 So today what were going to do is really focus on 2 theories of imagerysort of following the same outline that weve been Todays Goalsdoing all alongwe sort of set up a theorythen we go over Introduce2competingtheoriesofmentalrepresentationssome evidence The difference with this class is were only FunctionalequivalencePropositionsgoing to be introducing 2 different theoriesreally talking Explainexperimentstosupporteachtheoryabout a lot of different types of evidence for just those 2 Mentalrotationtheoriesin the end Im going to talk a little bit about ImagescalingImagescanningcognitive mapssort of how we negotiate around spacehow ImageshapeImageryandinterferencewe remember locationhow its sort of related to imageryAmbiguousfiguresDiscussthenatureofcognitivemapsandtheshortcutsweusetorepresentlocation So we all sort of have an idea of what imagery isits just a mental representation of something that isnt currently presentMental Imagery Usually we think about imagery as visual imageryyou can Imageryisamentalrepresentationofsomethingimagine a picture of something but we can have imagery for all thatisntcurrentlypresentour modalities So we can have auditory imagery so you have a Tendtoassumeimageryisvisualbutwehaveimageryinothermodalitiestoosong thats stuck in your headthats auditory imageryyou have that sound in your head without it being present We can Differentthansymbolicrepresentationwhichisanhave imagery for smellswe can think about familiar smells arbitrarymentalrepresentationofaconceptOftenstoredaslanguagefrom your childhood If I asked you to imagine a smell of rotten Canbeschematiceggs you can sort of conjure up that smell even though its Canbeabstractconceptknowledgereally not present So you can have imagery in all our modalitiesgenerally we think of visual imagerytoday were pretty much just going to be talking about visual imagery but the idea is that what we talk about visual imagery can apply to all imagery The key to imagery is that it resembles something realthats the idea with imageryit somehow resembles the real thing That is opposed to symbolic representationso we have imagery which resembles whatever the real thing is symbolic which is completely arbitraryit still is a mental representation of something but its completely arbitrary Usually we talk about language when we talk about symbolic representation So think of the word dogthat represents an animal dogyou all get an idea of what I mean when I say dogtheres nothing about the word dog that resembles a dogit doesnt look like a dog DOG doesnt sound like a dogtheres nothing doglike about that its a completely arbitrary symbolic representation If I asked you to imagine an image of a dog that would resemble a real dog Symbolic representation can be quite complicatedquite abstract as wellso we can talk about schemasabstract concept knowledgewere going to be talking about those things in the next 2 classes were going to be focusing more on this symbolic representation arbitrary representation So those are sort of the 2 ways that we can think about representing knowledgesymbolic or as images or resembling the real item That distinction is actually captured in a theory called the dualcode theory described by Paiviothats just that we can DualCode Theory Paiviorepresent knowledge as words or as pictures so as a symbolic Imagerysymbolicrepresentationdichotomyiscode or as analogue codeits analogous to a real thing it describedbyPaiviosdualcodetheoryresembles it So there are 2 ways that we can think about Thoughtscanberepresentedin2waysknowledgeAswordssymboliccode And Paivio basically said that these are the only 2 things that Asanaloguecodesimageswe need for knowledgethey work in concert with each other EverythingcanberepresentedverballybutnotSo for example we can represent everything as a symbolic code everythingcanberepresentedasanimageWecandescribeacatbutitseasierjusttopictureitin language we can describe everything but its not always the Wecandescribefreedombutitsnotsoeasytobest way to do it So you can say the word dog or the word cat pictureit get an idea of what I mean but everyone might have a slightly different idea of what that is You might sort of come up with whats belongs to a dog or a catisnt the same to everyone elseyou really have to describe it a lot An image is you just get one imageits more efficientfor concrete items Other things are more efficient to use symbolic codeEx freedom We could come up with some sort of image some sort of picture for freedom but its just a lot simpler to just have that wordget this idea this abstract concept knowledge of what belongs in this idea of freedom So we really need both symbolic codesanalogue codes to represent all knowledgesometimes we use one sometimes we use the other So thats the idea of this dualcode theory The dualcode theory when we talk about images only describes one way to talk about images So it has 2 ways we can 2 Theories for Representing Imagesdescribe knowledge symbolic codeanalogue code but for Dualcodetheorydescribesonly1wayofimages it uses analogue codeimages are analogous to real representingimagesobjectsit uses one way to describe imagesthats one image AnaloguecodesSymboliccodestheoryanalogue code Its also known as the functionalequivalence hypothesisthat images are functionally Thefunctionalequivalencehypothesisbelievesallequivalent analogous to real objects So thats the first theory of imagesarerepresentedasanaloguecodesimages The other theory is propositional theorythat says that we can Anothertheoryofhowimagesarerepresentedispropositionaltheorycreate images but images are really just a byproduct of Imagesareepiphenomenaofunderlyingsomething else something deeper So propositional theory says propositionalnetworksknowledge is stored as propositionswell talk more about what propositions are but for now just sort of get the basic idea of the theory that knowledge is stored as propositionsfrom there we can create images we can create symbolic codes but the basic unit is a proposition Dualcode theory says no the basic unit is either an analogue code of images or a symbolic codeEpiphenomena is a byproduct of something elseits a phenomena that sort of comes out of the side you have this base of a propositionthen byyou get this nice image that we can work withwe think really exists but really it doesnt matterwe can take it or leave it we can work without having these imageswhats really important is the proposition Really an epiphenomenon essentially you can think of it as a byproduct so an example may be heat coming off computersthe heat is there its present but we dont need the heat for the computer to workit just happens as the computers doing what it needs to dowe get the heat that comes out Question So when were talking about images we can talk about 2 theories as saying what images arehow we represent these things One is that the functional equivalence hypothesis which then leads analogue codestheyre imagesare analogous to real objects If were talking about images theyre analogousthey resemble the thing out there in the world The other theory is propositional theory that says when youre talking about images theyre just the byproductwhat is really important are these propositions So basically the question is the images exist are they the important part of knowledge or is it propositionsthose are the 2 theories The dualcode theory sort of is a parallel theory but its asking how we represent knowledge as a wholethis says well we can have words or we can have picturesit assumes as part of that theory functional equivalence hypothesis it doesnt even take into consideration the propositional theory Other researchers have come alongsaid hold on hold on you cant just say that you know you have this theory of words or picturesthen not even take into consideration the propositions So dualcode theory only just talks about one way of representing imagesthats as an analogous codealso you have propositional theory What I want to do is give a brief introduction about something Functionalequivalence hypothesisthat the functionalequivalence hypothesis has saidthen a Finke1989described5waysthatimagescanbesimilarlittle bit more about propositionsthen were going to talk tophysicalobjectsabout some evidence for each of them1Transformationalequivalenceimaginedandphysicalmovementsuse So if images are analogous to real objects we expect them to thesamelawsofmotionbe similar in a number of ways And Finke basically describes 5 2Spatialequivalencearrangementofelementsinimagesarethesameascriteria that images have to meet in order to be considered thoseinphysicalobjectsfunctionally equivalent to real objects These are in your 3Implicitencodinginformationaboutphysicalobjectscanbeattainedfromimageseventhoughnotstoredexplicitlytextbook but theyre not in the text portion theyre in a table on one of the pagestheyre not given names theyre just sort of 4Structuralequivalenceconstructionofimagesandphysicalobjectsusessimilarprocessesdescribed so what Ive done here is Ive given them the names 5Perceptualequivalencesimilarbrainmechanismsareusedforimagerybc its easier if you have sort of a cue to categorize theseIve andperceptionnumbered them in the same order theyre presented in the table so you can match them up that way So the way that images should be similar to real objects if this functional equivalence hypothesis is true is first transformational equivalencebasically says ifare to manipulate the images we should be doing the same thing asmoving a real objectthe same laws of motionmovement should apply And thats
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