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Lecture 3

lecture 3.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Craig Chambers

Test next week! - -not responsible for the names of authors or dates - --only detailed studies should be known -- and know general findings from book - - know more detail from lecture - fill in the blank typically refers to terminology discussed in class (i.e the displacement question) humans vs. nonhuman findings - chocking hazard - evolutionary tradeoff - -speech sounds and language - think about links between say todays lecture and the design features discussed two lectures ago Lecture 3: - sign language -- issue of sign is complicated -notion of deaf is a social and cultural phenomenon -capitalized death - it can be talked about in various contexts - start by remembering: - icon, index, symbol - specifically icon (meaning and physical relationship) and symbol (arbitrary rela- tionship) -- this continuum will be considered when looking at sign language vocal auditory channel is dominant (no culture only uses sign language.) What advantages would spoken language have over sign (vocal vs. manual) - hand free (your hands can be free doing something else) - in spoken communication you can sense the tone - ears vs. eyes --- eyes need to direct your attention to a particular area in space, whereas sound does not - hard to see sign language at night (a lot above reasons seem rational reasons) How deeply rooted is the dominance of spoken language? the more experienced you are with a particular modality the more you will favor it and the more biased you will be. experimental strategy - look at young children to see if their.... Namy and Waxman study - being exposed to spoken language you have experience with spoken words -wanted to see if child was successful at identifying the object after a week or so from learning what it is (hearing) - sign language - do children accept gesture - were interested in distinguishing a pattern - test phase you select the object - they paired gesture or word with a particular object and you were supposed to select the correct object when given the word or gesture - only earlier group accepted the act (the 18 month old) - suggests that in our early state we are open to the idea that communication can be channeled to another modality -- therefore general preference for spoken language is due to preference rather than need How far can we go? Is there certain perceptual formats children are willing to accept? Normally when we talk we gesture --- so there is something natural with communicating with this modality - sign language proper --- history of sign language - it was not thought to be a real lan- guage at first - some myths associated with sign language are that they are universal (the same) - Not true - like language differs between people, so does sign language. - myth - pantomime (you are skilled at looking at and understanding what people are or will be doing) - not true - manual version of spoken language - this myth is incompatible with myth one - sign languages can come from french sign language and english sign language Sign languages are not spelt spoken languages Sign language in relation to design features a sign can stand for something - semanticity (yes) mutual unintelligibility (so they are arbitrary in some way) signs with iconic origins are reshaped over time, iconic sense is lost (signs re- sembles what they refer too, result in them getting blurred and so iconic nature is harder to perceive - arbitrariness (yes) (american sign language developed from french -- look at victorian age - iconic signs had to do with head ware -- what did men wear during the V. age? Hats. women? wore a bonnet (which is strapped to the bottom of chin) - not obvious what the iconic origins are) manu signs without iconic basis - does not mean balance between arbitrary and sign -- more iconic in sign than in sound language signs with decreasing iconic features shown in class -- iconic i.e eat, monkey, karate less iconic - i.e cat, sit, stand displacement (yes) - these symbols can refer to things that are absent or abstract concepts productivity (yes) - words can be used in combination - can make never produced sentences and understand sentences you have never seen before duality of patte
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