Class Notes (864,808)
CA (522,917)
UTM (24,469)
PSY (4,272)
PSY290H5 (149)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - The Anatomy and Evolution of the Nervous System

12 Pages

Course Code
Ayesha Khan

This preview shows pages 1-2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 12 pages of the document.
PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 Anatomy of the Nervous System Anatomical Directions (in animals) - Rostral or anterior o Head end of four legged animal - Caudal or posterior o Tail end of four legged animal - Inferior or ventral o Towards the belly of four legged animal - Superior or dorsal o Towards the back of four legged animal In Humans - Anterior o Towards the front o (Towards the top when its from the bottom half) - Posterior o Towards the back o (Towards the feet from when it is from the bottom half) - Ventral or inferior o Towards the front (from the bottom half) - Dorsal o Towards the top - Neuraxis o Dividing line that occurs o Splits into left and right - Proximal o Closer to the midline of the body - Distal o Away from the midline of the body - Lateral o To the side - On the test, this image will be on the test, and will be fill in the blanks*** Dorsal or Superior View of the Brain - We see a lot of symmetry - If we look at the cerebral cortex is broken up into the left and right hemisphere - Ipsilateral – they are on the same side o Ipsi – the same o Brain structure A and B are ipsilateral PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 - Contralateral – opposite sides of the brain (right and left hemisphere) - Bilateral – there is one structure on each side - Unilateral – structure is only found on one side of the brain Planes of Section - Coronal (frontal) o Front to back - Sagittal o Side view - Horizontal (axial) o Top to bottom Visual that can pop up on the midterm*** Cerebral Security (insert image) - The Brain is enclosed in a very thick bone - The bone in itself is enclosing the entire central nervous system (the spinal as well) - In a baby, you can see and feels the pulsations occurring because the bone hasn’t completely fused (until around 18 months) o Therefore brain damage can occur very quickly The Spinal Cord (insert image) - A series of interlocking thick bones - The spine is broken up into different divisions Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System - Meninges PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 o Three layers of meninges provide protection - Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) o Secreted in hollow spaces in the brain known as ventricles o Circulated through ventricles, subarachnoid space, and central canal of the spinal cord o When there is some sort of injury, it provides a sort of cushion - Blood Supply o Brain receives nutrients through the carotid arteries and vertebral arteries o Carotid arteries goes up through the side of the neck o Vertebral arteries enter through the back The Skull and Three Layers of Membrane Protect the Brain - Dura mater – is the top layer that makes up the meninges - Arachnoid membrane and underneath it is the subarachnoid space o Where you see arteries, blood vessels and veins as well as the spinal cord - You have nerves that are exiting the brain and spinal cord – ****Pia mater and arachnoid membrane are the two membranes provide protection o Leading outside the brain and spinal cord o Within this cover, you see nerves  even nerves get the protection - CSF is important because it provides a cushion in case of a shock - Veins take the blood back towards the heart, to get oxygenated PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulates Through the Ventricles, Spinal Cord and Subarachnoid Space - Ventricles are cavities in the brain o Cavities have CSF o Cavities are covered by the Choroid Plexus - Choroid Plexus are cells that are connected with the blood supply o Takes nutrients by any blood circulation occurring in the brain, and converts materials from blood supply into CSF - Be able to label the diagram below - CSF is all along these 4 ventricles o 1 and 2 are the lateral ventricles (off to the side) The Brain Has a Generous Supply of Blood - Carotid artery go up to the side of the neck - Vertebral artery goes ahead and joins an arterial system that is all over the brain Stroke - Leading cause of disabling neurological damage o Third most common cause of death in the developed world - Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) – aka Stroke o Cerebral = refers the brain o Vascular = refers to the blood supply o Therefore, blood supply disruption to the brain itself - Sudden/gradual, complete/relative, permanent/transient - CVA could occur due to: PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 o Cerebral ischemia – lack of oxygen or blood supply to a particular region in the brain. Therefore the neuron activity starts to shut down, and eventually lead to cell death, or spontaneous lesion o Thrombosis – clotting of blood and can form in a cerebral vessel o Embolism (form of thrombosis) – normally a blood clot that can travel to another part in the body o Hemorrhage (aneurysm) – bursting of a blood vessel - Sometimes can be an aneurysm, which is a pressure point  representing a weak spot that can show minor symptoms - Treatment o Surgery: Controversial o Drugs (?)  blood thinners  questionable because they do provide side effects The Organization of the Nervous System The Anatomy of the Spinal Cord - There is usually a letter and a number when referring to a region of bones - Cervical – letter C will be used - Thoracis – chest area - Lumbar – lower back area - Sacral and coccygeal - lower back where the reproduction system - If you take a horizontal cross section: o White matter = axons PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 o Gray matter = cell bodies - We see here the dorsal and ventral route - We can take any cross section of the spinal cord, and will see the dorsal and ventral route - Dorsal route – sensory route o Refers to our sensations o Example, touch, sight, smell, taste, hearing - Ventral route – motor exit o Capturing information from the sensory systems and sending them to the dorsal route o The motor response occurs that goes to the body - From your spinal cord, it can go up to the brain, OR it can be processed at the level of the spinal cord and exit through the ventral route o If it is through the ventral route, it is most likely motor neuron and can go through synapses  MOVEMENT o Can either be internal or external movement o Command can come from the sensory system The Central Nervous System - The spinal cord o Extends from medualla to the first lumbar vertebra o Knowing the division of the brain is important (not necessarily the definition) Brainstem - The brainstem extends quite a bit into the middle inside of the brain - The Hindbrain o The myelencephalon (medulla) o The metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) - The Midbrain o The mesencephalon (in the middle) PSY290H5
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only pages 1-2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.