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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - The Anatomy and Evolution of the Nervous System

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY290H5
Professor
Ayesha Khan

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PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 Anatomy of the Nervous System Anatomical Directions (in animals) - Rostral or anterior o Head end of four legged animal - Caudal or posterior o Tail end of four legged animal - Inferior or ventral o Towards the belly of four legged animal - Superior or dorsal o Towards the back of four legged animal In Humans - Anterior o Towards the front o (Towards the top when its from the bottom half) - Posterior o Towards the back o (Towards the feet from when it is from the bottom half) - Ventral or inferior o Towards the front (from the bottom half) - Dorsal o Towards the top - Neuraxis o Dividing line that occurs o Splits into left and right - Proximal o Closer to the midline of the body - Distal o Away from the midline of the body - Lateral o To the side - On the test, this image will be on the test, and will be fill in the blanks*** Dorsal or Superior View of the Brain - We see a lot of symmetry - If we look at the cerebral cortex is broken up into the left and right hemisphere - Ipsilateral – they are on the same side o Ipsi – the same o Brain structure A and B are ipsilateral PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 - Contralateral – opposite sides of the brain (right and left hemisphere) - Bilateral – there is one structure on each side - Unilateral – structure is only found on one side of the brain Planes of Section - Coronal (frontal) o Front to back - Sagittal o Side view - Horizontal (axial) o Top to bottom Visual that can pop up on the midterm*** Cerebral Security (insert image) - The Brain is enclosed in a very thick bone - The bone in itself is enclosing the entire central nervous system (the spinal as well) - In a baby, you can see and feels the pulsations occurring because the bone hasn’t completely fused (until around 18 months) o Therefore brain damage can occur very quickly The Spinal Cord (insert image) - A series of interlocking thick bones - The spine is broken up into different divisions Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System - Meninges PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 o Three layers of meninges provide protection - Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) o Secreted in hollow spaces in the brain known as ventricles o Circulated through ventricles, subarachnoid space, and central canal of the spinal cord o When there is some sort of injury, it provides a sort of cushion - Blood Supply o Brain receives nutrients through the carotid arteries and vertebral arteries o Carotid arteries goes up through the side of the neck o Vertebral arteries enter through the back The Skull and Three Layers of Membrane Protect the Brain - Dura mater – is the top layer that makes up the meninges - Arachnoid membrane and underneath it is the subarachnoid space o Where you see arteries, blood vessels and veins as well as the spinal cord - You have nerves that are exiting the brain and spinal cord – ****Pia mater and arachnoid membrane are the two membranes provide protection o Leading outside the brain and spinal cord o Within this cover, you see nerves  even nerves get the protection - CSF is important because it provides a cushion in case of a shock - Veins take the blood back towards the heart, to get oxygenated PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulates Through the Ventricles, Spinal Cord and Subarachnoid Space - Ventricles are cavities in the brain o Cavities have CSF o Cavities are covered by the Choroid Plexus - Choroid Plexus are cells that are connected with the blood supply o Takes nutrients by any blood circulation occurring in the brain, and converts materials from blood supply into CSF - Be able to label the diagram below - CSF is all along these 4 ventricles o 1 and 2 are the lateral ventricles (off to the side) The Brain Has a Generous Supply of Blood - Carotid artery go up to the side of the neck - Vertebral artery goes ahead and joins an arterial system that is all over the brain Stroke - Leading cause of disabling neurological damage o Third most common cause of death in the developed world - Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) – aka Stroke o Cerebral = refers the brain o Vascular = refers to the blood supply o Therefore, blood supply disruption to the brain itself - Sudden/gradual, complete/relative, permanent/transient - CVA could occur due to: PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 o Cerebral ischemia – lack of oxygen or blood supply to a particular region in the brain. Therefore the neuron activity starts to shut down, and eventually lead to cell death, or spontaneous lesion o Thrombosis – clotting of blood and can form in a cerebral vessel o Embolism (form of thrombosis) – normally a blood clot that can travel to another part in the body o Hemorrhage (aneurysm) – bursting of a blood vessel - Sometimes can be an aneurysm, which is a pressure point  representing a weak spot that can show minor symptoms - Treatment o Surgery: Controversial o Drugs (?)  blood thinners  questionable because they do provide side effects The Organization of the Nervous System The Anatomy of the Spinal Cord - There is usually a letter and a number when referring to a region of bones - Cervical – letter C will be used - Thoracis – chest area - Lumbar – lower back area - Sacral and coccygeal - lower back where the reproduction system - If you take a horizontal cross section: o White matter = axons PSY290H5S – Introduction to Physiological Psychology Lecture 2 – July 15, 2013 o Gray matter = cell bodies - We see here the dorsal and ventral route - We can take any cross section of the spinal cord, and will see the dorsal and ventral route - Dorsal route – sensory route o Refers to our sensations o Example, touch, sight, smell, taste, hearing - Ventral route – motor exit o Capturing information from the sensory systems and sending them to the dorsal route o The motor response occurs that goes to the body - From your spinal cord, it can go up to the brain, OR it can be processed at the level of the spinal cord and exit through the ventral route o If it is through the ventral route, it is most likely motor neuron and can go through synapses  MOVEMENT o Can either be internal or external movement o Command can come from the sensory system The Central Nervous System - The spinal cord o Extends from medualla to the first lumbar vertebra o Knowing the division of the brain is important (not necessarily the definition) Brainstem - The brainstem extends quite a bit into the middle inside of the brain - The Hindbrain o The myelencephalon (medulla) o The metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) - The Midbrain o The mesencephalon (in the middle) PSY290H5
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