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Lecture 5

PSY310 Lecture 5 (Feb 4, 2013).docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Simone Walker

NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE 1 - FAMILIES SLIDE 2 - OBJECTIVES FOR THE DAY SLIDE 3 - Each family is made up of subsystems - 4 parts - More than the sum of its part - More than the individual relationships that make it up SLIDE 4 - Between mother and father, between siblings - Diads (between two individuals) - These subsystems are also related to each other because they influence each other SLIDE 5 - Influences of neuruto conflicts - Not only stability, but there is also change within the system - Overtime, family reaches state of equilibrium - However, things can happen that causes disequilibrium - Balance can be upset and there’s a readjustment process that takes place - How family context influences adolescent development SLIDE 6 - Living longer nowadays, more adolescents are experiencing death of their parents later in age - Back then, adolescents experience deaths of one parent and then remarriages - Society changed so that now it’s more urban compared to rural farming in the past - With development of cities, where family lived has changed - Families are more mobile and can move around more SLIDE 7 - Smallest in America than they have ever been - Size of nuclear family is decreasing - Lower birth rates nowadays - In 1800s, average woman had 8 kids - Changes in family composition, not just traditional mother and father and children, - There are common-laws with biological children, matriachal (woman breadwinner) or same sex parents, or blended family (step family), and single parent families SLIDE 8 - Changes in family structure - Traditional nuclear family no longer the norm SLIDE 9 - Comparing family situations in 1971 and 1997 - In 1971, more likely to have two siblings so birth rates are decreasing, less likely to have father and mother college graduates, mother more likely to be homemaker than having full time job SLIDE 10 - Family used to educate their children - Education is now served by schools - Religious functions in which family was primary contexts in which children learn from them and observe practices - Nowadays, there are external institutions (churches, etc;) - Medical nowadays, you go to see a medical professional and not necessarily home to your parents - Economic and financial supportive families in the past; nowadays, employers give you money NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Recreational time with family but nowadays, there is an entertainment industry - The only thing that hasn’t change is affective functions (providing you with emotional support) SLIDE 11 - Large increase in divorce rates - Lead to proliferation of research and looking at consequences of divorce SLIDE 12 - Dramatic increase of divorce around the beginning of 1960s - More and more adolescents are experiencing divorce SLIDE 13 - Impact of divorce will change family structure in terms of who they’re going to live and where - This chart shows the family arrangements - Dotted lines show the amount of antisocial behaviour (delinquency, alcohol and drug use, promiscuousity) - Intact family have lower rates of delinquent behaviour - High levels of delinquency with adoptive and foster parents, and with biological partner and live in partner SLIDE 14 - Effect of divorce is really small and not as large as people think - Not the divorce itself and changes in family structure that stems from divorce - The effect of divorce on the family processes and the quality; disruptions in the quality of adolescent relationship with family members and then their development - Not about divorce itself but how it changes the quality of relationships SLIDE 15 - don’t need to memorize it - The chart is used to predict adolescent development after divorce - Need to look at family processes SLIDE 16 - Remarriage also represents a change - Adolescents have more problems in step families compared to other adolescents; something about stepfamily processes that affect them - Black teens are more likely to experience parental divorce or born outside of marriage; usually grow up in single parent homes because their parents don’t remarry SLIDE 17 - Back then, fathers worked in farms; Adolescents grew up in households where father was out all day while mother are home all day - More employments for mothers and working full time - Some adolescents have to experience adjusting having a full time working mother SLIDE 18 - Focusing on the quality of the relationships of adolescents and their family members - immediate effects are often temporary; takes about 2 years for adolescents to adapt - Impact bias: emotion causing event are going to be more powerful and impactful - We are bad at affective forecasting and predicting how events are going to affect us - Immune neglect: underestimate our resilience and coping with events - Sleeper effects aren’t seen until years after divorce - Need to look at marital conflicts that happen before and during divorce; so many adolescents experience long term marital conflicts of parents - How parenting has changed as an effect of divorce; less organized and routine, less monitoring and supervision in which parenting breaks down and this has negative effects on adolescent development - How much stress is created and linked to primarily to the adverse outcome - Parent with financial custody has to support themselves and their kid(s) - The things that divorce leads to is the things that affect adolescents NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. SLIDE-19 Marital conflict has the strongest reason for creating adolescent problems - More conflicts exposed, the more developmental and psychological problem - Parents fighting with each other, there’s less focus on parenting their adolescent so gives the adolescents more time/freedom to engage in delinquent behaviour SLIDE 20 - Considered whether it’s covert or overt - Is the parents yelling in front of the adolescents? Or when the adolescent is not around? - What’s the type of - overt has more impact on adolescent and develop more problems; covert leads to problems too but not as much as overt - The more adolescents blame themselves for the conflicts and internalizing the conflicts, it erodes feelings of comfort from a family - When parents are fighting each other, they may neglect parenting and therefore affects relationship with the adolescent - Parents may put adolescents in the middle and this creates loyalty conflicts and must choose between parents and there might be consequences as a result such as the parent the adolescent does not choose may mean the parent may not love them anymore - The parents may not do this, but the feelings of the adolescent may feel otherwise - This implicates that it’s not the divorce itself that affects the adolescents, it’s the marital conflict; divorce may actually be positive so that there’s less exposure to marital conflicts SLIDE 21 - Genes that they pass on to their offsprings - Genes that predispose the adolescents to behave in a certain way because of genetic factors - Genetic factors may or may not be passed on the adolescents, but the fact that they’re exposed to certain marital conflicts could lead to stress that also leads to similar behavior - Parents and adolescents share the same gene; in parents, it manifests in marital conflict and in adolescents, it manifests in delinquent behaviour SLIDE 22 - Long term effects of divorce that aren’t observed until years after divorce - Children of divorced family have higher education but more behavioural problem - Not enough parental monitoring and therefore increases the likelihood for the adolescent to engage in more delinquency - It also affects the adolescents’ views of relationship because they model the parent’s relationship for their own relationships - Adolescents who came from divorced family are more likely to divorce themselves after they get married SLIDE 23 - Changes in amount of emotional problems in different groups of adolescents - In younger adolescents who experience divorce, there’s more emotional problems and it also increases as time goes on; even for adults who experience divorce amongst parents, there’s more emotional stress but it’s consistent throughout time SLIDE 24 - boys experience more problems than girls - Girls may have self regulation and perhaps closer relationship to their mothers and help weather the effects of divorce - Divorce have a stronger impact on younger children as oppose to older children - Younger children with difficult temperament (precursors to personality: more irritable and finicky and slow to warm up) have a harder time adjusting to divorce; more withdrawn - Easy temperament means the type of person who are easily adjusted to different stimuli NOTE: DUE TO POTENTIAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENTS, THE SLIDES HAD BEEN TAKEN OUT BY OWNER. - Temperament is not attachment style - If children does not have extended family for support, they will also experience more problems; or supportive community members - Main point: NOT THE DIVORCE ITSELF, but the changes in family processes and the exposure to marital conflicts that affects the adolescents SLIDE 25 - Many parents are putting aside money to put their children to college/university - Parents nowadays have to take care of their aging parents as well - Adolescents are in a time where family are under greater financial strain - Family serving affective functions - When children are younger, it’s easily fulfilled, but in adolescents, how to fulfill it becomes less clear - Less about protection and more about guidance, less on socialization but more on direction SLIDE 26 - Shifting balance of power in which power becomes more balance - There will be cultural differences as well - Two individuals be part of same conversation but perceived the differences - No longer wanted closeness with parents - See cognitive changes as well; violations of expectations - Freedom of being a teenager, but there are also limitations of what you can do - Different things you can do when you turn older - Expectations differences; in the media, teens are portrayed as being moody and parents expect that this is what teens are going to be like and this will impact how they behave in relationships - Those parental expectations influences their behavior and they make those expectations manifest and it’s like self fulfilling prophecy - Imposing firm restrictions on adolescence and when adolescents act out together, they believe that they were right but it was their expectations and behaviour that impacts their kids SLIDE 27 - In infancy, the advice is usually normative; but advice for adolescence is always about problems that they have and focusing on non- normative behaviour and how to “fix” it - The parents put these expectations on their adolescents and then it enforces them to be strict, the adolescents rebel more and then when the parent’s expectations come true, they think they are right and the stereotype is right - Adolescents quarrel but it’s present at every stage of development; but it’s only for certain things - The parents and adolescents usually agree on what is morally right and wrong; such as education or finding jobs and religion; - Conflicts come from matter of personal taste such as what to wear, where to spend free time, keeping the room clean or type of music SLIDE 28 - Conflicts in more mundane and personal things, but why? Generation gap - Parents and adolescents have different taste
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