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Hywel Morgan (103)


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Hywel Morgan

PSY312 – lec1 May 6, 2013 *paper due on Wednesday, next class *can get textbook used – been in print for a few years now *midterm – May27, 100 mins – MC + SA - no lecture after test! - if miss it – will write a make-up test within a week *assignments – essays - 1-3 pgs long, APA style, double-spaced st - essay typically involves a thesis – 1 paragraph of paper; support argument w/ research presented at class – to get higher mark support with additional research u find, then conclusion & 1 one – due Wednesday @ beginning of class, but won’t be penalized until 2:30; bring HARD COPY -if don’t turn in an assignment in on-time, have to accompany with a medical note *LAST assignment is due on the very last day of classes – everything has to be due on the very last day of the term even if have note *final exam = 40% - CUMULATIVE *academic integrity – 2issues = cheating + plagiarism - cheating = using unauthorized aid(s) – explicit (no calculators/phones), implicit (copying off of another person) -can’t resubmit original work - Plagiarism = taking someone’s idea and saying it’s yours (not crediting it) = theft TODAY: -wat development is, specifying nature vs. nurture issue - review of neuro-anatomy involved in development (basics) -introduce cog-development while introducing nurture vs. nature issue Factors that Affect Development: 1. Heredity and environment Heredity = genetics, biology = nature - Genetic components of development - We’re genetically – hardwired to learn language - Famous linguist Noam Chomsky made eloquent argument that we’re genetically predisposed to acquire language - There are specific parts of the brain that seem to be specifically involved in language – 2 = Brocha’s (understanding) & Wernike’s (expression); 3 rd =angular gyrus (reading) Environment = wat we have learned (behaviourism) = nurture o Who we are is the product of environment we were exposed to - Contemporary psychology suggests that environment interacts with biology - Environmental factors can affect biology – teratogens: radiation, pollution (chemicals in environment that can interfere with development) , diseases (bacterial/viral/ preons-mad cow’s disease which are caused by cannibalism) - Main viruses that infect a fetus or infant (b/c no immunity built-up) can significantly damage neural development and impair cognition o Such as rubella, measles; zoster viruses (herpes virus – can interfere with cognitive development; but hopefully ur exposed to it in later infancy) o Most ppl exposed to chicken pox virus – good to be exposed to it in early/middle childhood b/c u can create resistance to it (immune system learns it’s not good & can fight it); if u don’t have virus & are exposed to it in adulthood, u get really sick b/c didn’t develop immune resistance to it; now also have vaccination against chicken-pox so don’t have it but still develop immune resistance to it o There’s concern that vaccinations against viruses themselves impair cognitive development! b/c vaccinations themselves contain preservative that keeps it fresh (thiomersal) which is suggested to cause autism  3 large-scale studies of effects of thiomersal on developmental delay, & all shown that it’s not the case that thiomersal/vaccine causes autism - Ppl suggest multiple ultrasounds can affect cognitive development 2. Temperament = largely comes from genetics (inborn pattern of personality characteristics & behavior), pattern in infant reactions - They have consequences for cognitive development: 2 identifiable patterns 1-shy/introverted 2-extroverted - Patterns of behavior are however influenced by environment but they remain stable & consistent (seems to be built-in, but is influenced by environment) - Identified another pattern of temperament (mary wainsworth) o Easy = infants that are very easy to get along with o Difficult = infants that are colic; parent is most likely to be avoidant – affects child’s cognitive development; ideal parent for difficult child = patient, secure, understanding, non-aggressive BUT difficult child will elicit negative reaction which leads to poor cognitive development (can lead to Reactive Attachment Disorder) 3. Parent-child interaction -Attachment (environment, nurture)
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