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PSY213: Week 1- Aging in Developing & Research (Jan 7th/9th) .docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Kathy Pichora- Fuller

January 7 / 9 th 2014 Aging in Adult Development & Research Week 1 What is developmental psychology? Person’s development across their own lifespan, doesn’t end in adulthood. Why study adult development and aging? There is changes in the brain & lifestyle up until death. What does “OLD” mean to you? Gerontology + Experienced/- Vulnerable- dependence /- involves activity limitation/ + maturity- heightened emotions/ _+ social comparisons- life expectancy/ - decrease of health- pain/ legal category. What would you like to know about aging? Cognitive decline-Alzheimer’s Sexual Functioning Dementia Depression- mental health Changes in emotion Lifespan Perspective: Defining Age • ChronologicalAge: how long we have been around since our birth – Number of years since birth – Legal (license/retirement/pension) – Genetic clocks • Generational Cohort – Experiences (world events): Baby boomers/ hippies – Peer Comparisons • Self-perception/definition: How old do you actually feel? – Available Time: socioemotional selectivity theory- Laura Carstensen: your knowledge how much time you have available effects your relationship with others. • Biological: assessed by measuring the functioning of the various vital, or life-limiting, organ systems. Ex. Menopause. – Growth vs Decline – Relative to life expectancy • Psychological: refers to the functional level of the psychological abilities people use to adapt to changing environmental demands – Quantity/quality cognition – Coping & adaptive capacities • Socio-cultural: the specific set of roles individuals adopt in relation to other members of society and culture to which they belong – Social roles & responsibilities – [In(ter)]dependence What Happens as a PersonAges? • Positive Change? • Negative Change? + Experienced/- Vulnerable- dependence /- involves activity limitation/ + maturity- heightened emotions/ _+ social comparisons- life expectancy/ - decrease of health- pain/ legal category January 7 / 9 th2014 Aging in Adult Development & Research Week 1 Perspectives on Adult Development andAging (P. 3) Gerontology – The study of aging from maturity through old age • Myths of aging lead to the negative stereotypes of older people, which may result in AGEISM: a form of discrimination against older adults based on their age. **Why is ageism different than racism and sexism**: everyone will experience this kind of prejudice as they grow old enough- no one escapes it. • What are some of the myths and stereotypes about aging? • Dependency/ loose health/ can’t drive well/ more wisdom and expertise. • Do you have any erroneous beliefs about aging? • Do you harbour any stereotypes about older people? Healthy (“Successful”) Aging • Maturity – Growth Completed • Strength/Skill – Experience/Expertise • Knowledge – Wisdom • Independence – Wealth • Contribution to Others – Leadership Lifespan Development (Baltes): Margret & Paul • Multi-directionality: growth and decline • Plasticity: learning/adaptation continues • Historical context: time/culture of cohort • Multiple causation: biological, psychological, socio-cultural and life-cycle forces • Growth, Maintenance of development, Loss Regulation Issues in Studying Adult Development and Aging (P. 14) EXPLANATION: These three forces enter in a person’s life at different times. Forces of Development • Biological and Physical: – Physical characteristics and genetic effects • Psychological: – Cognition, perception, emotion, personality • Socio-cultural: – Interpersonal, societal, cultural, ethnic • Life-cycle: – Different effects of environmental factors depending on point in life • Depression/ WWs January 7 / 9 th 2014 Aging in Adult Development & Research Week 1 The Contextual Paradigm: Nature vs. Nurture • Adults influence and are influenced by life contexts, including: – Person-level factors • Biological: health and physical skills • Psychological: emotional/mental skills – Environmental factors • Physical environment • Social/Cultural/Historical environments • Interdisciplinary research approach & biocultural co-constructionism Shaping Development: Ex of continuity-discontinuity: High rate of teen suicide amongst aboriginals. This was Bimodal. Average was 50%. Underline explanation: preservation of culture decreases suicide rate. When Adolescence arrive at crisis points> if they can fall back on their cultural support it serves as a safety support. Forms of Developmental Change • Determinants of adult developmental change – Normative Age-Graded Factors affected by biological changes = similar development across individuals and cultures • Brain maturation/deterioration • Information processing • Senses: vision, hearing abilities – Normative History-Graded Factors • Developmental influences closely related to specific historical (societal, economic) events • Cohorts = those born at the same time= can lean to confounds. • Factors can include differences in education, economics, health, etc – Non-normative or Idiosyncratic Events: ex. winter snowstorm Car Crash. • Individual variations of unique, diverse biological & environmental events • Multiple variables as influences January 7 / 9 th2014 Aging in Adult Development & Research Week 1 o Bio-genetic processes o Individual life choices o Positive or negative chance events • Success in adapting to events The Meaning ofAge (Pp. 18 – 19) • Primary aging – normal, disease-free development during adulthood • Secondary aging – developmental changes that are related to disease, lifestyle, and other environmentally induced changes that are not inevitable • Tertiary aging – rapid losses that occur shortly before death OVERVIEW OF THEMES • Emphasize optimizing & constraining factors- making aging a much more successful experience. • Aging involves intra-individual and inter-individual changes and variability- Idiosyncratic factors. • Heterogeneity • CBC 9pm Doc Zone- roles of women in parenting • Effects of interacting cultural, biological, and experiential factors • Development = interplay between gains & losses SUCCESSFULAGING –aka HEALTHY/ACTIVE AGING • Avoidance of disease a
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