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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ayesha Khan

Introductory Neuropsychology - What makes ME different from others? What controls behaviour? What part of the body makes me behave? - For majority of human history, people constantly made educated guesses to these questions - Some people said behaviour was governed by nonmaterial mind (soul)  still exists today; others thought the heart governed behaviour - People didn’t know what the brain did for most of history Aristotle - One of the first to document a formal theory: concept of mentalism = idea of the mind  biological tissue in the body is where the mind is o But where does this tissue exist? The cardiac hypothesis: mind exists in the heart and it governs behaviour  Example: heartbroken  emotions from the heart Galen - Worked with gladiators and got to see inside the body - Agreed with mentalism but NOT cardiac hypothesis  believed thoughts, feelings, etc. originated in the brain, particularly the ventricles (cavities in the brain) which were surrounded by tissue and filled with fluid - The mind is a consequence of how the ventricles are working  their functions leads to behaviour Andreas Vesalius (Father of anatomy) - Published documents on his studies of the ventricles: their size, variation in life stages Rene Descartes - Impressed by machines; there was a statue in Paris that if you stepped in front of it, the brick would depress and the statue would set motion of water which would squirt onto the person’s face  led him to think of concept of reflex - Agreed ventricles are important BUT the mind is nonmaterial  concept of the soul - His ideas? 1. Human body functions like a machine 2. We have a mind that may exist in the brain BUT is nonmaterial o DUALISM: environment sets into motion how our body works  machine like, but you have an immaterial mind that can control the material body  Mind and body are separate  Mind-Body Problem: how is dualism possible because nonmaterial mind would have to add new energy to the world to effect a material body  this is a direct violation of laws of physics - People began documenting what happened to the rest of the body and brain - Forward 100 years to 1800s: o Phrenology: discipline a lot of people followed 1. Different regions/parts of the brain are associated with different behaviours/functions 2. If an individual participated in one behaviour more, it would lead to growth in that part of the brain  distortions in th
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