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PSY325 Self-esteem Lecture.docx

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Erika Carlson

Self-esteem January 16, 2013 - Paper: behaviour aspect, ex: participants videotaped (introduce themselves for 3 mins) - How favourable someone evaluates himself or herself o Beliefs/thoughts and emotions Self-esteem is correlated with… - Personality o Neuroticism r=.50 o Extraversion - Mental health o Less anxiety, sadness, depression, social anxiety, shame, guilt, loneliness - Social behaviour o Confidence in joining groups o Conformity: want to avoid rejection around other people o Drug use o Antisocial behavior o Helping: people with low self-esteem less likely to help others Why we have self-esteem - Pursue Goals: - Avoid death - Facilitate Social relationships Goals: - Contingencies of self-worth scale: o Appearance, academic competence, love from family, virtue, God’s love o Whether we are achieving what we want o People different in their domains o If your contingencies is academic success then if you fail a test, it’ll go down that day regardless of the other domains - Evidence: o Monitor students after graduation  People who valued academic competence: self-esteem went up when they got good news from grad school and went down when they received bad news  But only for students who cared about academic competence - Downsides: o Academic: hurts performance and relationships  Become more focused on getting good grade rather than mastering the topic o Being in a relationship ex: put up with bad relationships, pursue ex o Variable self-esteem: vulnerable to depression and anxiety Alternative: self-determination theory - Competence, autonomy, relatedness o Do things that make us feel effective, feel like your behaviour is chosen (become a doctor because you want to and not because of parents), connected to other people - Self-determined behaviour - True self-esteem Terror Management theory: avoid death - Cultural worldviews: religion (after life), invented things to leave a legacy (book, etc). o Makes us feel as if we are avoiding death in some way o Politics, justice, culture – sense of meaning - Self-esteem: let’s us know when we’re living up to our cultural values - Anxiety-buffer hypothesis o Anxiety that we are going to die (immortal through legacy or religion) - Mortality salience hypothesis: o write about own death  Christians rating Jews: rated Christians more positively and Jewish participants more negatively  Protecting your own worldview to reduce your own anxiety  Harsher bond for prostitute: more strongly tied to idea of justice o Self-esteem  Derogate anti-American author more if lower self-esteem and less if more self-esteem Sociometer Theory - Fundamental human need: belonging (premise 1) o Premise 2: self-esteem is an evolutionary adaption that helps us achieve our fundamental need to belong - Gauge relational value o How accepted we are from other people in general - State self-esteem vs. trait self-esteem (how do you evaluate yourself) o State: moment to moment your self-esteem goes up and down for various reasons o Goes up: when you feel other people are accepting you o Goes down: do things to repair social relationships and elevate self-esteem (pain of low self-esteem is functional). o Some people are super sensitive to rejection/gauge broken Evidence for the sociometer - Self-broadcasting vs. sociometer o Group of people meet for several weeks and rate each other’s personality o Self-broadcasting hypothesis: high self-esteem makes other people like us o Research suggests that we are very good at detecting whether other people like us or not o Sociometer: people who are liked, like themselves more  Correct theory: people who are liked more, liked themselves more Self-esteem movement - Self-esteem is good… let’s give it to everyone. - Shift in parenting, 50’s - Child development – 1950s - Psychology of self-esteem paper - California “self-esteem, task force” o “Challenge program” – new ways to express self (e.g. Role playing in history class). o Make all children feel special Self-esteem over the lifespan Study - Followed several cohorts over many years and tracked their self-esteem, to get a handle on what is self-esteem doing to people. - People who have higher self-esteem have more relationship satisfaction later (correlational) and job satisfaction (linear pattern). - If you have high self-esteem you are going to experience life bumps better (jobs, relationships, etc.) - Correlation does not mean causation but it can give an explanation - Y->SE: is a relationship the case that the self-esteem is higher? - Stability effects: SE-SE = se over time is relatively stable - Self-esteem could just be genetic Self-esteem movement Criticism: - Self-esteem is genetic - Poor self-knowledge…disappointment later on (not getting into med school) - Grade inflation - False sense of special or narcissism Narcissism, side effect of self-esteem movement? - Extremely high self-esteem - Inflated conception of own attractiveness, competence, and intelligence (better than average) - Power/status: at any cost, hurting other people doesn’t matter - Entitlement - Interpersonally hostile - Very charming, flashing dressers, promiscuous, swear and talk about themselves a lot, critical about other people’s ideas, disagreeable - Men tend to be more narcissistic than women - US – individualistic culture, more narcissistic - Age differences: narcissism is really high in young people and then goes down Narcissism epidemic? - Individuals are becoming more narcissistic, especially young people. - Twenge: 85 samples, 16,000US college students, 1982-2006 - NPI (narcissism personality inventory) scores are going up over time o Traits/characteristics are also on the rise, more assertive, extraverted, less concerned with environment and other people o Word use: in everyday exchanges  Song lyrics, what people prioritize at the time  Word use in songs and time  Over time our culture is
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