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Lecture 3

PSY333 - Lecture 3.docx

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Gordon Anderson

How stress gets ‘under our skin’ Allostasis - dynamic adaptation o don’t have one set point o can function at different set points - body relies on many systems to maintain health - Allostatic load Benefits of Affiliation - Social Affiliation o Reduced risk of illness o Reduced risk of mortality Cognitive Appraisal - Primary Appraisal: harm (ex. Someone’s beating you up), threat (ex. Could potentially physically or psychologically damage you – fight or flight response), or challenge (ex. Could be one of the most difficult things you have to do, but could also be positive – had the resources to cope with it) o Want to be able to turn threats into challenges o Can learn strategies to change our thinking – to threats  Increase coping mechanisms • Turning them into a challenge - Secondary Appraisal – do you have the sufficient coping mechanisms? o Turns into low stress if you do o If you don’t feel that you can cope with it, then going to take it as a threat  Can turn into long-term stress response Transactional Model - always going through cognitive reappraisal as we get new information o re-appraising that it’s a challenge, no longer a threat Disregulated Stress Response - can come in four ways o under-secretion of stress hormones o over-secretion of stress hormones o no stress response when necessary o chronically activated stress response - Depression o Could have low/high cortisol levels (depends on comorbidity) o Disorder of stress response – why are all these different patterns emerging?  Individual differences • Why we see at least four types of Disregulated stress response Lecture 3: Interventions and health behaviour - decide whether it’s your own body (self) or not (non-self, and should be attacked) First line immune defenses - What are they? o Skin o Saliva/mucous Acquired immunity - Active o Own body making antibodies - Passive o Ex. Breastfeeding (Natural) Immune system over-reaction - Allergy o Everything try to get infectious agent out of body o Don’t have an infectious agent, just something that happens with our body - Autoimmune disease o Killing/destroying/exploiting own cells C-Reactive Protein - What is it? o Most reliable indicator of inflammation  C-reactive protein going to be high when there’s inflammation - What is it a marker of? o Heart disease risk o Imminent heart attacks Psychoneuroimmunology - Studying what the physiological mechanisms are, and how stress impacts that function, and how it can make you sick or vulnerable to illnesses - Difficult to know how to study processes in the body - Janice Kiecolt-Glaser o Grandmother of psychoneuroimmunology o Med students, if stress affects how fast they heal from wounds  Hole punch biopsy o How fast their mouth wound is healing  Marker of immune function o Put sticky tape on people’s arms and rip it off  See immune response inflammation on skin Glucocorticoids - GC inhibits the release of messengers like interleukins and interferons - GC make circulating lymphocytes less responsive to infectious alarm - Most GC effects are against T-cells? This means that cell-mediated immunity is more disrupted than anti-body mediated immunity - GC can actually even kill lymphocytes Stress Events - Stress increases risk of infectious disease - Stress suppresses immune responses to vaccines & antibiotics o Stress adversely effects antibody and T-cell immunity to HPV vaccine o Stress can reactivate latent viruses  Most humans have latent form of herpes virus • People that are very stressed out that have latent viruses can activate that virus during periods of extreme stress - Events in life as most stressful: o Stressors that were over a year that were job/family-related predicted that you got sick - Social support: o Analyzing social networks  Type of social network • Tight social group, family, supportive – protective factor against illness - Stress slows wound healing o Caregivers (13 caregivers and 14 matched controls) o Hole punch biopsy (wound) - Psychological Reactions o Negative emotions (depression, anxiety)  Enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines • Increases risk for infectious, prolongs infectious episodes, and delays wound healing • Stress-related changes in inflammation may accelerate age-related diseases o Dementia
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