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Lecture 2

PSY340 Lecture 2 September 17th 2013.docx

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Judith Andersen

PSY340 September 17 2013- Lecture 2 STRESS AND HEALTH  How does stress impact any mental health issue, how It proceeds, produced?  ^ ALWAYS ASKED on test  What is the mechanism by which stress impacts health immune, cardiovascular , metabolic sys- TEST  Stress is unavoidable  Traumatic event, but also a chronic stressor like being harassed.  Chronic stress builds up over time, acute stress varies  Characteristics of stressors  Severity  Chronicity  Timing  Degree of impact  Level of expectation  Controllability  Making the connection  Stress physical health  Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with PTSD (n=4416)…avg age 29 of chronic disease  Intense stress from combat  Response to terrorist attacks  Representative of age, race, gender, income for the survey of the 9/11 attacks  Does having an acute stress reaction have a relation to health outcomes over time  N= 2729  Acute stress reactions to 9/11 predicted: a 53% increase in new cases of cardiovascular ailments at 2 and 3 yrs post attack  What happens to worriers?  For the ppl that continued to worry about more attacks, they had over 4 times chances of having heart problems…our thoughts are impacting cardiovascular system  Mechanisms  How does stress get under our skin  Cog appraisal always making these appraisals  Harm right now any harm?--> ex a bear is attacking my arm right now  Threat  immanent danger ex a bear is running at me  Challenge I have the coping mechanism and resources to deal with this ex. I am a trained sprinter so I can outrun the bear … “I can do this”  Stress-response system *** KNOW THIS  Autonomic nervous system we don’t even know this is happening…automatic  Sympathetic—fight or flight  Pupils dilated  Dry mouth  Goose bumps, sweating  Respiration increase  Increased heart rate  Increases epinephrine and norepinepherine  Decrease digestions motility  Parasympathetic rest and digest  In this state, your body is healing itself..immune system is working, digestion is happening, excrete growth hormone to repair muscles  Pupils constricted  Salivating  No goose bumps  Respiration normal  Threat appraisal  Triggers a physiological reaction in your brain—in prefrontal cortex  Starts in hippocampus triggers amygdala (synthesizes all info coming from senses and this puts all this info together and tells body what to do ..acutely aware of what you need to do) hypothalamus (starts endocrine actions..need signals in higher brain region to stimulus hypothalamus)  Instant stress response  Sympathetic medullary adrenal (SAM)  Brain cardiovascular system epinephrine/norepinepherine (so you can fight or flee)…need to get blood and glucose and other resources for energy immune system stimulation (the stress response stimulates the immune system bc in case of injury , immune cells travel to heal the injury…always on alert)  Prolonged stress response *** stressors and hormones stay in the body too long  HPA  Hypothalamus (CRH) pituitary (ACTH) adrenal (cortisol) (immune system suppression)  Cortisol helps to shut off the stress response  Cortisol  In every cell of the body  Permissive functions bp regulations  Active functions regulates immune response, dampens activating hormones, regulates gene expression, essential for life  Understanding the immune system  Protects the body from such things as viruses and bacteria  Provides leukocytes: front lines of defense  Communicates with brain via cytokines  Immune systems  Too mu
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