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Lecture 9

PSY341 LEC9.docx

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Hywel Morgan

Wednesday August 7, 2013 Lecture 9 DISORDERS OF ADOLESCENCE AND DRUG ABUSE CLINICAL SYNDROMES OF ADOLESCENCE  Disorders/psychopathologies diagnosed in adolescence after the age of 12-19 and perhaps a little after that  Under the age of 23 your brain is still developing o Some psychologists would include those btw 19-23 into research for adolescence even though legally and socially they are considered adults  We’ll first talk about the changes in adolescence are o Common in adolescence: substance abuse, eating disorders, depression (suicide) o Not all those who are depressed commit suicide and not all those who commit suicide were depressed o Commonly seen starting in adolescence 90% of the time or in early-adult hood  First talk about what adolescence is… A period of great upheaval and change  Problems with sibling and parents  Trouble in school  Dealing with new emotions  Because it’s a period of upheaval and change it become difficult to diagnose a psychopathology  “Craziness” is normal in this period of life  Labile affect: up and down during adulthood it’s a symptom of psychopathologies (mood changes) but found to be normal in teen years o Due to significant hormonal changes o There are other things that are changing, that make a teens behavior appear abnormal  There is a distinction able to be made btw abnormal and normal behavior during teen years  Drug abuse is statistically normal THREE BASIC DOMAINS OF CHANGE 1. BIOLOGICAL  Significant hormonal change in adolescene puberty 2. SOCIAL  Significant changes in the social doaiinteractions with other people  Main interaction is now with peers rather than parents 3. COGNITIVE  Significant changes in the cognitive domain  Piaget described this in a phase: operational phase  This phase constituted the use of a now more developed frontal cortex, using better judhement and problem solving skils 1. BIOLOGICAL PUBERTY  Growth spurt  Grow up and grow out. Men grow out in shoulders and women in their hips  Secondary sex characteristics develop as well = you get hair  Women begin to menstruate 1 Wednesday August 7, 2013 Lecture 9 SEXUALITY  It is a contentious issue  It does seem to be partially hormonally driven  Interest in sexual behavior begins at this age  However, who you are sexually attracted to is not well understood o It seem partially hormonally driven  Gender identity disorder is now not a psychopathology in DSM NUTRITIONAL NEEDS  Going to need calcium, B vitamins, D vitamins, proteins for metabolism  Gender change in eating  boys are now eating more than girls 2. SOCIAL AUTOMONOUS FEELINGS  Increase in autonomous feelings  Increased in emotional distance from the adolescent’s parents  An increased sense of me and you  “I have my own ideas about who I should socialize with”  This could lead to conflict btw the parents and the child  Good thing for the adolescent but not always a good thing for a parent  You will not see this in autism or mental retardation LOYALTIES  Loyalties develop and they become important  Intimacy becomes valued and personal preferences develop  Loyalties, usually peers, develop DESIRE FOR SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE  Social acceptance becomes desirable  Friends become important  In the teen years you develop a desire for social acceptance  Similar interests  being part of a “clique”  This is a significant social change o Away from the family and move towards peers with similar social interests ARGUMENTS WITH PARENTS  Adolescents want to make their own decisions and can turn into conflicts with parents  One aspect of conflict: does not want to join family for dinner and would rather spend time with hanging out with their friends  Conflict does become more self centered: teen thinks they’re right and that the parent is wrong o Normal conflict DATING  Sexually or romantically interested in  Someone you find attracted to spend a lot of time in  Can be either with same sex or opposite sex 2 Wednesday August 7, 2013 Lecture 9 3. COGNITIVE DOMAIN ABILITY TO THINK AND REASON  New ability to think and reason, and often idealistic but doesn’t mean they’re wrong o Adults may see them as impractical ASSERT INDIVIDUALITY  In adolescents there is an assertion of individuality  They have ideas that matter and thoughts that are their own, and may conflict with adults DE-IDEALIZATION OF PARENTS  De-idealization of the parents  Now think parent’s ideas are wrong  Not going to your parents for advice anymore  Types of normal changes that occur  At times they may seem abnormal, which is the problem when diagnosing a psychopathology at this period of development  There are a lot of changes occurring at this period, however, some of these changes can become abnormal THREE MAJOR PSYCHOPATHOLOGIES  DRUG ABUSE  SUICIDE  EATING DISORDERS  Three major types of psychopathologies during this age period  Hard to diagnose because there is a high level of intensity  Today: focus on drug abuse o During this age period it seems normal DRUG ABUSE PREVALENCE  High level of intensity and frequency to it  Extremely common disorder  The arrest of illegal drug use in teens has increased 5000% in arrests since 1960  Illegal drug use accounts for about 15% of all arrests amongst teens  What percent of teens do you think report/admit the use of an illegal substance: 50% o Disclaimer: not including alcohol, when alcohol is included= 80% o Use and distribution  About 50% will admit to drug use not including alcohol (80%) o Marijuana: 1/3 high schoolers reported to using juana in the last 6 months o Considered normal behavior  Teens are most likely to use a combination of drugs than other age groups  Teen males have a higher incidence than females 2:1 o Most of the data does not include the use of over the counter, prescription, inhalant, or caffeine (mind altering drug) 3 Wednesday August 7, 2013 Lecture 9 o Take caffeine: stimulates alertness and attention  most commonly abused drug because its readily available and not restrictive o You can develop a tolerance to it –flip side of withdrawal  Similar to riddalin and aderal o Drugs don’t always have the same affects on people  Drug that teenagers are beginning to abuse in large numbers because its not an illicit drug is cough syrup o The fastest growing drug of abuse in teenagers. When you take it: drowsiness (depressant) o Drugs that are depressants also have a pleasurable effect:  Easier to overdose with depressants because it calms the central nervous system to a point where the brain slows down and stops heart rate and breathing and can lead to death o “Robo tripping” MODES OF USE  A substance that gets into your body, makes its way to your brain and alters the way you think and feel o Sugar is a drug according to this definition, because it provides energy to the brain o Careful what  Drugs that significantly alter the way you think and feel more than sugar  There is a significant pleasurable feeling associated with these drugs for many people  Modes or methods of use = how they get into your body  Ingestion, stick in your vein (entering blood system), inhale, snort (dissolves across the membranes, different from inhaling)  Any of the modes can be used for any drug  Ingesting o Take it into your mouth an
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