Class Notes (807,344)
Canada (492,711)
Psychology (4,091)
PSY345H5 (172)

exceptionality lecture review.docx

15 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

Lecture 1and 2 4 periods 1. social isolation  historically people with disabilities were vulnerable to practices such as infanticide, neglect, abuse, slavery  these practices were seen as acceptable ways of ensuring that only the strongest from society would survive  selected eugenics - belief that can improve the society by discouraging people with genetic deficits from reproducing  kids with disabilities were seen as shame, weakness and burden on society th 2. 18 century humanitarian and legal reforms  18 century - major shift in treatment of people with disability  church started to take responsibility of people with disabilities -> argued that they should be treated in humane way  humanitarian reforms gradually translated into legal reforms 3. institualization  with inc indutrialisation people with disabilities became more visible -> harder time to keep up with work  government took responsibility of the disabled and institutions were as a result  in those institutions people were very segregated from their families and society in general 4. social inclusion - 1960s civil rights movement  civil rights movement began in 1960s to secure equal rights for people with disabilities (movement was also about gender equality, race etc)  periods are not well defined in terms of duration bc can still see intitualization, legal reforms etc legislature  Canadian charter of rights and freedoms o garantees to all Canadians - right to liberty, equality under the law, freedom of expression and religion amoung other things o supreme law of the land -> takes precedence over other laws o if other laws conflict with it, will be struck down by courts o broad law for doenst tell what to do in specific situations  ontario human rights code (OHRC) o guarantees equal rights and opportunities without discrimination in jobs, services and housing o goal - prevent discrimination resulting from disability, age, sex o all other Ontario laws have to agree with this law - ie; construction law  accessibility for ontarians with disabilities act (AODA) o under this legislature, gov of Ontario will develop mandatory accessibility standards - called customer standards -> to remove the barriers for people with disability o very specific law that deals with issues of how large an organization have to be to have elevator  americans with disabilities act (ADA) o federal law passed in 1990 o prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in area such as transportation, telecommunication, local gov, commercial facilities o to be protected - have to have disability or association with person who has disability o disability defined: person with physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a person in one or more areas of daily life; a person who has a history of impairment or perceived by others as having an impairment o doesn’t name all the impairments barrier free society  barrier free society can be created through o accessibility to education ->FAPE (free and appropriate public education)  provision under IDEA that requires every student with disabilities to be included in public education  appropriate is the one that meets the child’s unique needs o accessibility to employment -> barrier free facilities  people should be hired based on their qualificcations, regardless if they have a disability  therefore organizations should make sure that they have barrier free facilities - buildings with no architectural obstruction so that people with physical disabilities can move freely and as a result get to work o living in the community -should not be locked down in institutions o legislature to guarantee such accessibility - should have laws that protect people with disabilities  have laws to protect people with disabilities but as society progresses, more and more disabled are left behind IDEA (public law 94) and Bill 82  federal law that made free and appropriate public education available to all eligible students, regardless of type and extent of disability; all eligible students must receive special education and related services based on their unique needs  free and appropriate public education - provision under IDEA that requires that every eligible student with disability be included in public education  4 provisions o assessment -> labeling and placement of the child into special ed program requires assessment that is multidisciplinary and nondiscriminatory  multidisciplinary - several pieces of info have to be used to come up with assessment  nondiscriminatory - cant use easier assessment for white kid and harder for black kid so would send the black kid away o parental involvement ->parental involvement includes giving consent for testing and placement of the kid in the special ed and participating in the development of individualized education plan (IEP); rights include:  giving consent before the assessment  giving consent to the place where the kid will be educated  request another assessment if don’t agree with the decision of the school  request copy of child’s education record; review educational record  request dual process hearing …  to participate in committee o LRE - least restrictive environment -> every child has the right to learn in the least restrictive environment that is consistent with the child’s needs o IEP - individualized education plan will be created based on an assessment and designed to meet the child’s needs the fact that disabled have access to public edu is achieved by:  mainstreaming o or main dumping o putting children with disabilities into general education classroom with no additional support o letting them sink or swim o since education is developed based on the average student, disabled kids would be very unlikely to succeed  least restrictive environment (LRE) o putting them in LRE o means the every student with disability has the right to be educated with nondisabled students to the max extent appropriate o the school boards is required to create a continuum of lre for the children based on their individual needs o lre will differ depending on the child o lre ranges from least restrictive (most inclusive) to most restrictive (least inclusive) o where on continuum the child will be placed will be specified in IEP o considerations for placement in LRE  the most important consideration is how severe the disability is ->rule of thumb - the more severe the disability the more restrictive the env; not always the case -> ie kid who is strong academically might be placed in most restrictive env bc that’s the only place that can provide good edu for blind  other considerations - bc of locations of services; individual and family values kids end up in places that are not best for them -> ie young kid who can benefit from residential school for blind is not sent there bc parents cant give up on the kid yet; ie parents of muslin kid might not want to send him away from his community to school where everyone is white  educational integration (mixing) o the end of separation of edu for diff groups o achieved by  placing disabled students on general edu campuses  support services are provided - collaboration btw general ed and special ed teachers should be made available o the key problem - doesn’t accommodate students; ie if non-Catholic came to catholic school, other holidays wouldn’t be celebrated  inclusive education o children with disabilities are educated along with their age and grade peers in the general education classroom, where they receive support services appropriate to their needs o described as push in services o kid could be disruptive in general class - need distinction btw full and partial inclusion o full inclusion  children with disabilities receive all of the instruction in general education classroom  support services come to the student  for mild disabilities  the classroom has to be modified o partial inclusion  children with disabilities receive some of the instruction in the general education classroom and “pulled out” to the special classroom as needed steps for individualized education plan (or program) process 1. pre referral -> the attempts are made to help the child in general education  the child is in general education program; might be disruptive or might not learn  early intervention services may be used to support the child who has not been yet identified as needing special education but who needs extra help to succeed in general education class  the accommodations and modifications of the environment very according to the child  ie might sit the child in front of the classroom if the kid is being disruptive  if modifications are successful then referral process might not be necessary  when pre referral take place there is family notification 2. referral -> child is referred for evaluation for special education assistance  if the child doesn’t get better in pre referral stage then normally start referral process  before assessment can be done family has to be notified and provide written consent; if they don’t evaluation cant be done (written family notification and consent for evaluation)  once the family consent is received the assessment can take place 3 assessment - testing; data collection to see if the child is eligible for special education under IDEA 4. identification - special services committee  the committee will consider the results of the assessment  will decide if the child should be labeled with particular disorder  will decide if the kid is eligible for special education services  the kid might be labeled but committee might decide that the regular classroom is more appropriate for the child -> general education is appropriate for child’s needs  if the committee decides that the child needs special education then the moves to next stage 5. analysis of services and placement - special education and related services are required to meet the child’s needs  if the child comes to school with diagnosis already (ie down syndrome) -> skip the previous stages  start talking about the actual placement 6. develop IEP  involve talking about accommodations, modifications, placement, level of least restrictive environment etc  need parental approval 7. annual evaluation of iep *****  see if the expectations that set out for the kid are appropriate 8 terminate (end) iep or revise iep  the condition of the kid coudve stayed the same, worsened (got into accident) or got better -> end or revise iep right vs wrong way to determine placement  right - assessment and identification -> development of iep ->placement  wrong - assessment and identification -> placement -> development of iep types of classrooms  inclusive classrooms o consists of general education teacher, special ed teacher (consulting teacher), general ed students and special ed (exceptional) students o special ed teacher supports general ed teacher by helping out with accommodations and modifications o adv - disabled are socialized among nondisabled peers-> will mimic their behavior o disadv - might be bullied, might be excluded in inclusive class. lower self esteem, kid might be distruptive so not letting others learn;. might not have enough support bc consulting teacher might not always be there  resource room ***** o consists of general education classroom and resource room o general education classroom consists general education students, children with disabilities (exceptional students) and general education teacher o resource room which is adjacent to general education classroom contains special education teacher and exceptional students who, depending on the needs, move back and forth btw general ed class and special ed class o adv - kids are included as much as possible o disadv - may put stigma on the students that they are removed for more difficult subjects; expensive; can be implemented if there are enough special ed kids o best for students with visual and hearing impairments who need accommodations but not modifications  self contained classroom o classroom that consist of special education teacher and exceptional students; separate from general ed class o ad - included in segregated env, can support each other, have more support that they need o disadv - segregated, can mimic maladaptive behaviors from other kids o best for kids with more severe disabilities  special school o most restrictive env for kids with very severe disabilities o adv - all the needs are met, not excluded from any activities o disadv - removed from society, hard to cope with env after come out bc the env isn’t modified like the school is Lecture 3  early intervention - services provided to infants and toddlers who are disabled or who are at the risk of developing disability  early intervention reduce the overall impact of the disability and counteract the neg effects of intervention later in life ->helps bc brain at a young age is not yet hardwired  early intervention is more effective and less costly in the long run bc intervention later in life is less likely to help  ie kid with autism who doesn’t receives behavioral therapy early in life is less likely to develop language and as compared to kid who does -> later in life will need more intensive therapy which might not help infant development program  for kids with developmental, intellectual disabilities, autism ect; not hearing or visual impairment  goals o optimize the functioning level of the child - NOT cure o help the parents with information and support o help families with problems around specific issues and access to available services  target populations o kids with established risk - group of kids who have been diagnosed with medical disorder at birth or during pregnancy; top of the list to get help o kids with biological risk - group of kids who early in life experienced neg events that inc the likelihood for acquiring disorder o kids with psychological risk - group of kids who live in the environment that inc likelihood for acquiring disorder  intervention approaches o client centered - intervention is delivered directly to the child o family centered - parents are taught intervention strategies which they then deliver to the child o can have combo; the child with hearing impairment -> client centered for surgery to fix hearing; 2. family centered - family is taught strategies of how to interact with the child; ie teach the kids how to listen better  services o assessment o IFSP o in home services o office visits o case managing o counseling o parent support groups o public info talks o researching  who work there o slp, psychologists, social workers, nurses transition to high school and adult life  kids with disabilities get more
More Less

Related notes for PSY345H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.