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Psy345 Lecture 1.docx

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Stuart Kamenetsky

Psy345 Lecture 1 What does exceptional mean? - Exceptional is one or two standard deviations above/below the mean (below 20 or above 130) - In general, learning/educational disabilities will be on the lower end (Down syndrome, ADHD, etc) - Higher end will be those who are gifted History of social change (Western/European) - Social isolation (murder, confinement outside society) o Babies with deformities were killed or confined outside the community in an institution o The idea was they don’t belong in the society because they are difference o Example – Leper Colony of Spinalonga – individuals with leprosy were confined and this isolated colony, you have to go on a boat to get there. Another example Bin Her – the person lived in a cave because they had leprosy, and the family took care of them  Leprosy – disease that hits skin, they lose their skin, doesn’t look/smell nice, highly contagious thus they live outside, isolated o Back then no one knew anything about these diseases, Down syndrome individual looks very different, they didn’t know whether he was contagious or not, so they’re solution was either kill the child or send the child to an isolated institution th - Humanitarian and legal reforms in 18 Century o Dark ages in Europe declining o There was enlightenment, new advancement in medicine o New ideas came about, new ways of thinking o People began to think this isn’t right o Saw more industrialization, revolution; before it was more agriculture, they lived on the land of their master and did labour - these exceptional children were managed in the house o So when industrialization came, gave them chance for employment, so as they worked these children could not be taken care of, it became a social problem o These disabled people ended up on the streets as beggars o For practical and ethical reasons reforms came about – the disabled person is not only family’s problem but now the communities problem too o Different levels of government started to make reforms - Institutionalization o First solution – institutionalization – lasted a very long time, and still exists today – attempt to take care of the disabled, feed them, cloth them  Example – Orrillia Asylum for Idiots – opened in 1877, renamed Huronia Regional Center in 1974  There were different levels of idiocy, idiot and imbecile meant different things depending on their intellectual level  Started with 150 people, grew to 7000 people  Key problems associated with institutions –  Ethical/practical problems – they were taken away from society and live in isolation  Practical – is it good for them to away from family, normal people, is it good for them to be with people with disabilities as themselves  Abuse from staff – in a movie, a person who didn’t have a mental illness, doc removed his prefrontal lobe, but wasn’t need cuz he wasn’t even mentally ill  Who makes decisions about treatment? Is consent given from family members  Sexual abuse – happens behind closed door between caregiver and individual  “Looking after” wasn’t happening, other things were taking place, individuals were put in harm rather than helped usually - Social Inclusion o Major change came in 1960s – civil rights (race and sex) o Strong women movement as well o Then finally prepared to fight for equal rights o And then there were people with disabilities and were fighting for their rights o One of the change was gradual closing down of institutions, only ones that stayed are those for severe disabilities and have consent from the families, frequent visits, etc o Key feature – people with disabilities have a right to be included in mainstream society o All human beings have the right to be a part of society, no one has the right to remove them from society o Demonstrations were taking place – disability rights demonstration – violent demonstrations  Person who used a wheel chair waited at a bus stop, the bus let on all the people but th
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