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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Stuart Kamenetsky

PSY345 Lecture 3 Term test 40 multiple choice – text – factual , analogies, understanding Know all the readings chapters 1-5 Don’t focus on court cases in US – just have a brief understanding of it 10/12 definitions – lecture or text – 1.5 marks each Short answers based on lectures only 3/4 – multiple parts to it Ex. State the four provisions, what are the implications? Etc. Term paper Individualized educations, choices for children with special needs – making tough decisions Paper about individuals, clinical, case study Not empirical – critical analysis about a disability issue – issue that we deal with Should address a controversial issue – not sure what the correct answer would be Thesis must be based up an analysis of the case study provided Example (1.5 – 2 pgs) Autism is defined and so on – kids who are autistic prefer being alone because they have a hard time coping with others and they also have problems at school – zero exclusion and zero tolerance Want to teach the child how to behave but can’t have that at the cost of other kids being abused Treatment – the child is being rewarded when asked to sit out because the child wants to be alone – so even though the other kids are being protected the autistic child is not improving (2 - 3 pgs) Subtitle case study – has to be a narrative – background information about the child and anything else pertinent to the case such as the placement – then start the narrative – caused problems and was sent out he was happy because he was alone and he got mad at another child again and punched harder Separate facts from the analysis (3 - 4 pgs) Understanding of the controversy – using the elements to support an opinion All the analysis has to be based upon the past decisions – describe the problems with the past settings Clearly show an understanding of both points of view (.5 pgs) Conclusion and summary 3 or 5 references The Early Childhood Years - First years of life are crucial to the overall development of the child o Critical periods of development in language, attachments, working models o Even conservative government have tended to acknowledge and supporting these early developmental stages - Early stimulation can affect the development of language, intelligence, personality and self- worth - Early intervention can reduce the overall impact of disabilities as well as counteract the negative effects of delayed intervention o Kids with disabilities go on long waitlists and this creates more problems so early intervention can counteract delayed intervention - Early intervention may, in the long run, be less costly and more effective than providing services later in life o Zero sum game – x number of dollars and many competing needs – everything needs more money - have to do more with less o More cost effective – thus leaving more money for other causes What services are available? - Network of “Infant development programs” o Serve infants who are at risk for developmental delay and their families o Find them through paediatricians - Developmental delays for the most part do not have a cure they just have treatment plans – also do not contain surgeries - Goals o To optimize the child’s functioning levels  Goals in a general environment  We will not know if the child will learn to read and write o To help parents with information and support  Parents with developmental delay kids happens all at once – endure the same amount of grievance at one time than compared to normal parents who grieve throughout their lifetime o To help the family solve problems around special issues or to gain access to available services  Services stretch and get thinner and thinner  Some services rather than providing individualized services provide group services Target Populations - Established risk – receive first priority - Biological risk – have had early negative events in life – premature birth, lack of oxygen during birth, mother was sick during pregnancy or she consumed alcohol o Second in line - Psychological risk – kids who grow up with depressed mothers, poverty, abuse o Least likelihood that the kid will grow up with developmental problems Intervention Approches - Client centred – help the client directly o Ex. Go to the dentist, works well in cases where the cases are more medically controlled o Psychological – bipolar – chemical imbalance, being abused by family members, dissatisfied with life even though he/she has everything - Family centred – help the family – help the client o Preferred approach in early childhood education o Mediator model – the family member is used as the mediator – the parent is taught what to do and the mediator implements the strategy o Teaching the family how to help the child o Better when the child is young and cannot implement the treatment themselves o Child is very vulnerable and there is a comfort level with the family o The child will need help all the time not once a month – the parents are usually available o Parental involvement is very important o Cost effective – very basic level where the parent should be able to do it o We need to look at the whole family there might be some families where the parent has a lot of kids to take care of and she does not hav
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