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Lecture 1 - The Endocrine System

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Emis Akbari

PSY395H5 – Hormones and Behavior Lecture 1 - September 13, 2013 The Endocrine System True or False: 1. Men have bigger brains than women – True - Men are larger than women in general, and as a result, their average brain size is bigger 2. Too much testosterone makes men aggressive – Controversial - In a lot of cases it does, but in a lot of cases it doesn’t - There are other factors that play in aggression - Men primed with too much testosterone and have a dominant T then they'll become more aggressive 3. PMS is a myth – False - Could be environmental influence, affects mood but also hormonal changes - Estrogen and Progesterone decrease causes decrease in mood and causes stress - Doesn’t affect all women equally 4. Estrogen is a female hormone and testosterone is a male hormone – False - We all have both hormones, and we will talk about what happens in the body with certain receptors and enzymes - Estrogen is higher in Females and Testosterone is higher in males - When testosterone levels are high, SB increases in females, when estrogen levels high SB increases in males 5. Gender is fixed - False - Gender is a continuum 6. Homosexuality in men is due to an abnormal abundance of female hormones; similarly lesbians have an abnormal abundance of male hormones – False 7. Women are better at fine motor skills whereas men are better at spatial skills – True - It is an average, it does not mean that EVERY man is better 8. Obese people lack the willpower not to eat – False - This will further be discussed in class 9. Estrogens cause male sexual behavior –True 10. Nature’s default is female – True - In the utero, the fetus is a fetus until testosterone is introduced, then male genetillia may start to develop 11. Water, food, and energy regulation are driven by hormonal processes – True Behavioral Neuroendocrinology: A Hybrid Science - Ethnological Field Observations: o Patterns of sexual behavior, pregnancy, parenting, aggression, feeding, drinking in the wild - Clinical Observations and Intervention: o Normal and “abnormal” patterns of sexual behavior, reproduction, aggression, stress, feeding in animals and humans, gender identity, sex-role development o Sex differences in cognitive function in humans PSY395H5 – Hormones and Behavior Lecture 1 - September 13, 2013 - Laboratory Experiments: Hormone Binding Interactions o Hormone manipulation (pharmacology) o Immunoassays (RIA, ELISA) o Manipulate a hormone to inject/block testosterone in a rat  we can look at levels of hormones and receptors - Laboratory Experiments: Hormone-Gland Interactions: o Hormone manipulation (pharmacology)  That might release testosterone in a specific gland o Steroid binding (pharmacology) o Cellular responses to hormones (Electrophysiology, immunoassays)  Look at electrophysiology, seeing when there is a lot of testosterone present - Laboratory Experiments: Hormone–Cell Interactions: o Cellular growth (history)  Estrogen causes cellular growth (ie. women have breast)  Estrogen is also a cancer causing agent; but promote good stuff for the brain o Changes in protein synthesis (immunocytochemistry) o Changes in gene expression (in situ hybridation) - Laboratory Experiments: Hormone synthesis and metabolism: o Different tissues (biochemistry) o Structural reactions (chemistry and biophysics) Understanding the Biological Basis of Behavior - Describing behavior can be examined analytically or in terms of function - Analytically: o How we describe the behavior o Mounts, Intromission (vaginal penetration), ejaculations, grooming etc. - Functionally: o Reproduction (especially in the animal world) o Pleasure - it is enjoyable and that’s why we do it Approaches to Study Behavioral Neuroscience - Somatic Intervention – manipulating a body structure or function and observation resulting behavior o (Somatic = body) o Castrating males and study behavior o ie. This is when you lesion the brain, where it is no longer functional o ie. Injecting hormones in the body - Behavioral Intervention – intervening in behavior of an organism and looking for resulting changes in body structure or function o Measure hormone level in blood and brain; can see before, during and after sex of the level of testosterone o Ie. This is a micro dialysis machine and pumps artificial CSF in and takes it out in these bind in about 4 minutes. We can analysize how much glutamate and other hormones in that sample and we can see what hormones increased and decreased after ejaculation. We can atho see what is happening in the brain. Ancient Humoral Doctrine (attributed to Hippocrates, 5 Century, BCE) - Humorism is a now discredited (but historically important) theory of makeup and workings of the human body o Suggesting that an excess of deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person directly influences their temperament and health PSY395H5 – Hormones and Behavior Lecture 1 - September 13, 2013 - All fluids equal, person is normal o If one exceeds or decreases then the particular behavior increases or decreases Galen (2 Century CE) - Galen was the founder of galenic medicine – utilizing plants and minerals - He had a great contribution to the field of neurology and the nervous system – this was facilitated by the fact that he was a physician to gladiators and noted certain behavioral changes and consistent result of head and spinal injuries o Noticed that certain problems followed certain brain injuries o Personality changes consistent with particular brain or spinal injuries Phrenology (Gall and Spurzheim, 1810) - Primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions - The distinguishing feature of phrenology is the idea that the sizes of brain areas were meaningful and could be inferred by examining the skull of an individual - Women who bore children were considered more attractive than maiden, in the neck n the cheeks size of brain; skull size and shape Berthold’s Experiment (1849) - Berthold noticed that two chicks (male and female look like) that a female grows into a chicken and male grew into a rooster (different physical types) o There must be something that changes in the genders that causes these differences o He took out the testes and noticed males didn’t masculinized and when he placed the testes back, and noticed normal male development occurred o There is something in the testes that causes masculinity that cause this behavior (that is what he noticed) - Something in the testes lead to masculinization. 3 major conclusions: o Testes are transplantable organs o Transplanted testes can function and produce sperm o Cause testes to function normally after all nerves were served there are no specific nerves directing testicular function Sun Yaoting (1902-1996) - Last eunuch of the Imperial Chinese Court - For centuries, royalty employed men castrated before puberty, called eunuchs, to guard women from other men - If done after puberty has little effect on appearance/sexual desire – before puberty results in short stature, long arms and sexual behavior are unlikely to develop - Also, secondary sex characteristics fail to develop – no facial hair or deepening of the voice Male-to-Female Transsexuals - Hormone have huge affect on appearance - There are male -female transsexuals that have had hormonal treatment (this is what they start with) - They will start to get estrogen - Hormones given later in life has effects as well Female-to-Male Transsexuals PSY395H5 – Hormones and Behavior Lecture 1 - September 13, 2013 - Hormones affect appearance greatly Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (Complete or Partial) – Male - Can be CAIS or PAIS - There is problems with receptors, insensitive to androgen (no androgen receptors in the body) - You have testes that secrete testosterone - If a male is born with this condition, there is nothing to masculine him, and then looks like a females - Partial - child is born more hermaphildiic and it is more obvious to the parents that development issues are occurring and in some cases you cannot tell) - T produced by brain and body can’t read it o No receptors Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia – Female - Have adrenal on top of the kidneys that produce a lot of hormones - They produce low levels of androgens - Adrenal glands produce low levels of female hormones - Female born with this condition will masculinize later - High levels of androgens produces that leads to ambiguous genitalia (like male) CAH - Deficient activity of one enzyme needed for cortisol synthesis - 21-hydryoxylase deficiency >90% of cases - Prevalence 1:5000 to 1:12,000 - Genetics: Autosomal recessive pattern with compound heterozygote expression - Neonatal manifestations: Female virilization (masculinization), salt-wasting syndrome - MYTH: CAH “causes” homosexuality in women - Pioneered the study of sex differences and dysfunctions associated with CAH and AIS o Money made use of “sexual reassignment surgery” to help people with both conditions. SRS was extremely controversial Types of Chemical Communication - The endocrine system is only one example of chemical communication - All levels of biological organization make use of some form of chemical messenger - In all these cases, information is communicated by the release of chemical agents and their detection by receptor activation - A key component of these interacting systems is the endocrine system, however there are other systems of chemical mediation Intracrine Communication o Chemical mediation of intracellular events o One cell communicated with itself (example: cell death, metabolism) o This is does within the cell Autocrine Communication o Autocrine cells secrete products that may feed back to affect processes in the cells that originally produce them o IE. if neuron releases dopamine, this neuron has the autorectpors that tells dopamine to stop giving more PSY395H5 – Hormones and Behavior Lecture 1 - September 13, 2013 o Cells secrete chemicals that affects itself (feedback) and helps shut down the cell Paracrine Communication - Paracrine cells have chemical messengers tat are released and produce a biological response in a an adjacent cells – neurons are well known paracrine cells Endocrine Communication - Endocrine cells have chemical messengers (hormones) that are released into the blood and have their effects distally on target tissue o Effects distal from the source o Only affects tissues with appropriate receptors o Eg: women have a lot of estrogen receptor in breast so breasts develop - Endocrine substances are released to the outside of an individual and induces a biological response in another animals – pheromones are such substances - In some cases, a single hormone (especially peptides) – can have autocrine, paracrine or endocrine functions - Leptin – when produced in adipose tissue, and released into the blood – functions as a hormone (regulates energy balance) o Leptin is also produced in the anterior pituitary – diffuses locally influencing TSH (paracrine) o Leptin also stimulates expression of itself (autocrine) TERMINOLOGY - Chemical Messenger – Any substance that is produced by a cell that affects the function of another cells - Cytokine – A chemical messenger that evokes proliferation of other cells, especially in the immune system - Hormone – A chemical messenger that is released into the blood stream or tissue fluid system that affects the function of target cells some distance from the source - Neurohormone – A hormone produced by a neuron - Neuropeptide – A peptide hormone produced by a neuron - Neurosteroid – A steroid hormone produced by a neuron - Neuromodulator – A hormone that changes (modulates) the response of a neuron to some other factors - Neurotransmitter – A chemical messenger that acts across the neural synapse The Autonomic Nervous System - Two opposing division: o Sympathetic (controls “stress” response) o Parasympathetic (controls “recovery” response) - Work in opposition in different tissues and organs General Principles of Hormone Action - Act gradually - Change probability or intensity of certain behaviors - Reciprocal relationship between the environment and the quantity and types of hormones - Behaviors can be affected by a variety of hormones, or a single hormone can be act on a different behavior - Produced in small quantities and released in a pulsatile fashion - Circadian clocks control hormone systems - Actions of one hormone can be changed by interacting with another hormone - Hormones are similar across vertebrates, but their function may vary across species PSY395H5 – Hormones and Behavior Lecture 1 - September 13, 2013 - Hormones effect only cells that contain appropriate receptors and the same hormones receptors are located in the same brain areas in different species Classification of Hormones – 3 Categories of Hormones: - Protein Hormones – made of strings of amino acids – if it is short in length it is referred to as a peptide hormone (ACTH, FSH, LH) - Amine Hormones – simpler in structure and consist of one amino acid and are sometimes called monoamine hormones (Adrenaline) - Steroid Hormones – composed of 4 strings of carbon atom that are interconnected (2 types) o Gonadal (Estrogen and testosterone) o Adrenal (Cortisol) Protein and Peptide Hormones - Most vertebrate hormones are proteins - Protein Hormones – (similar to other protein molecules), are made up of individual amino acid building blocks - Protein hormones that are only a few amino acids in length are called peptide hormones and larger ones are called protein hormones (or polypeptide hormones) - Protein and peptide hormones can be stored in endocrine cells and are released into the circulatory system by exocytosis - Protein/ peptide hormones are soluble in blood and therefore do not need carrier proteins to travel to their target cells, as do steroid hormones - However, protein and peptide hormones may bind with their plasma proteins, which will slow their metabolism in the blood - Hormones are removed from the blood by de
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