Variable : " a concept that can take on more than one value example citizenship can vary by country have to have ethics approval educational attainment can vary by types of institutions l high school. , college) independent variable : the presumed cause in a cause and - effect relationship dependent variable : the presumed effect in a cause. X y (looking for whether x affects y ) independent dependent causation and association i correlation causation : can say with. 700% certainty that a change in your x creates a change in your. I more likely when using probability sampling lecture research methods. Methods experiments i method most associated with the natural sciences ) Surveys field research analysis of existing content analysis historical.