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Suzanne Casimiro

SOC100 November 18 th Population, Urbanization, Environment Demography: The Study of Population - analyzes size and composition of a population, and studies how and why people move from place to place - fertility: the incidence of childbearing in a country’s population - crude birth rate: the number of live births in a given year for everyone 1000 people in a population o crude because it takes into account everybody, not just women of childbearing age Mortality - the incidence of death in a society’s population - crude death rate: number of deaths in a given year for every 1000 people - infant mortality rate: number of deaths among infants under one year for each 1000 live births - life expectancy: average life span of a country’s population o in Canada 2001: 77 for males, 82 for females Migration - migration: movement into and out of a territory - immigration: measured as in-migration rate o ex. number entering an area for every 1000 people in the population (out- migration; leaving) Population Growth - fertility, mortality, and migration affects the size of a society’s population - high-income countries grow as much or more from immigration than fertility - Canada well below the world average of 1.2% (Africa 2.3%) Malthusian Theory - Malthus warned of impending doom based on population projections o population growth increases in geometric progression (ex. 2,4,8,16,32) o food production in arithmetic progression (ex. 2,4,6,8) - result: people are reproducing at rates that exceeded their ability to produce sufficient food - critical review: underestimates human ingenuity and role of inequality Demographic Transition Theory - population patterns reflect a society’s level of technological development - 4 stages: o Stage 1: pre-industrial  agrarian o Stage 2: early industrial o Stage 3: mature industrial o Stage 4: post-industrial Urbanization: The Growth of Cities - the concentration of humanity into cities - the evolution of cities: o first cities: Jericho – 10 000 years ago  followed by cities in Egypt, China, Central and South America The Growth of North American Cities - settlement in North America to 1850 – New York, Boston, Montreal and Halifax started out as tiny villages; economic growth transformed them into thriving towns - urban expansion: o in 1931, Canada was 50% urban o now Canada is 80% urban - metropolis: a city that socially and economically dominates the area Suburbs and Central Cities - suburbs: urban areas beyond the political boundaries of a city o half of urbanites live in municipalities outside central cities o businesses migrate to suburbs too - megalopolis: a vast urban area containing a number of cities and their surrounding suburbs
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