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SOC100H5 Lecture Notes - Infant Mortality, Arithmetic Progression, Geometric Progression

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Suzanne Casimiro

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November 18th
Population, Urbanization, Environment
Demography: The Study of Population
-analyzes size and composition of a population, and studies how and why people move
from place to place
-fertility: the incidence of childbearing in a country’s population
-crude birth rate: the number of live births in a given year for everyone 1000 people in
a population
ocrude because it takes into account everybody, not just women of childbearing
-the incidence of death in a society’s population
-crude death rate: number of deaths in a given year for every 1000 people
-infant mortality rate: number of deaths among infants under one year for each 1000
live births
-life expectancy: average life span of a country’s population
oin Canada 2001: 77 for males, 82 for females
-migration: movement into and out of a territory
-immigration: measured as in-migration rate
oex. number entering an area for every 1000 people in the population (out-
migration; leaving)
Population Growth
-fertility, mortality, and migration affects the size of a society’s population
-high-income countries grow as much or more from immigration than fertility
-Canada well below the world average of 1.2% (Africa 2.3%)
Malthusian Theory
-Malthus warned of impending doom based on population projections
opopulation growth increases in geometric progression (ex. 2,4,8,16,32)
ofood production in arithmetic progression (ex. 2,4,6,8)
-result: people are reproducing at rates that exceeded their ability to produce sufficient
-critical review: underestimates human ingenuity and role of inequality
Demographic Transition Theory
-population patterns reflect a society’s level of technological development
-4 stages:
oStage 1: pre-industrial agrarian
oStage 2: early industrial
oStage 3: mature industrial
oStage 4: post-industrial
Urbanization: The Growth of Cities
-the concentration of humanity into cities
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