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soc209 lc 5.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Zachary Levinsky

Soc209 - lc 5 jan 30 2012 Policing worth 30% - have choice - short answer questions - no point form essay question- don't just dump information. mc -- best possible answer - 12 - 2:00pm. - about 70, 000 police officers across Canada. - 1 for every 500 Canadians, lower ratio than US Australia and Great Britain. - largest cost item in justice system - not just police officers making money - also other justice programs etc., receives approximately 60% of the funding pie, the costs just over $250/per Canadian Structure to Policing (in readings) Four levels: 1. Federal level of policing 2. provincial policing 3. municipal policing 4. First nations policing This is the basic structure of policing. Provincial Police: Three forces: Ontario Provincial Police, Surete de Quebec, Royal Newfoundland Constabulary, Other provinces use contract with RCMP Responsibilities: police rural areas and areas outside municipalities, enforce provincial laws and Criminal Code. First Nation Policing: -type of policing is negotiated by first nations community : they are autonomous reserve - based, based on particular reserves - this form of policing is linked a lot with twilight driving and twilight tours, first nations officers from RCMP or OPP. Responsibilities: enforce Criminal Code, federal and provincial status, band bylaws. Functions of the Police Force 1. preserve the peace - preserve the peace, order. 2. prevent crimes and offences- what the role of the police officer is. 3. assist victims of crime 4. apprehend criminals - one of the first critical steps of the crime funnel. 5. lay charges. 6. execute warrants 7. assist prosecution 8. complete training What do the police do? - Shearing: -fundamental role: maintenance of order and the guaranteeing of security. - policing is about imaging how to achieve safety in the future. - how do we maintain order. - not about punishing past deeds. - or catching criminals in the act or fighting crime. this is in the public/media dramatization of the police role/function. - citizen information most important to secure arrest - its about getting witnesses early - within the first 48 years. What do the police do? Ericson - Policing the Risk Scoetiy in Canada: a police officer records one indictable occurrence a week, makes one indictable crime arrest every three weeks, secures one indictable conviction every nine months. in NYC: - 156 patrol officers in a high crime area, 40% did not make a felony arrest in a year, 69% made no more than three felony arrests. Policing the Rick Society Ericson - Patrol Officers- do more knowledge work.- 39% of all assignments dealt with administrative matters. - consumed more than 50% of their time - filling forms, transcribing interviews etc. - Even detectives: - 10% of their time was spent on direct criminal investigation, spend 50% of their time in the office and they are also doing knowledge work, and much more time devoted to recording investigative activities than to actual investigative work. Structure of Policing Cont .. Public transportation police (railway, airport, transit) - national Harbours board Police, Canadian Pacific Railways Police, Canadian Pacific Investigation service, Transit Police The Rise of Private Security - important to policing - it hasn't always been studied by criminologists. Police Discretion -1.factors affecting Police Officers Decision to Arrest - seriousness of the crime - legal factor - strength of the evidence - preference of the victim -the relationship between the victim and the suspect. - behav
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