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Lecture 2

SOC231H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Martha Nussbaum, Auguste Comte, Human Behavior

Course Code
Zaheer Baber

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SOC231: LEC102
18TH AND 19TH Centuries: Dramatic Social Change
Natural world theory cannot be changed
Sociological Implications:
1. The concept of SOCIETY. The social world is NOT naturalrather, a
soial otat that a hage, e e-negotiated (Martha Nussbaum
clip), full potential of human beings can be actualized this is the ideal.
o It is negotiable.
2. No theory can ever be complete: partial perspectives that capture only
certain aspects of social reality
No “OCIAL THEORY ee poides a God’s ee ie o total < fial
tuth…athe the path to poisioal tuth.
o Not possible because we are human, we come from different
backgrounds and perspectives.
“ocial “tructure
Way of thinking socially
All societies are organized in ways of social relations
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Created by human beings in certain social arrangements
Ideology and culture
o Perspectives which are/are not possible in a social structure
E.g. divine rights of kings and queens ruling over the serfs
and lords
1. Feudalism -> France before the revolution, England before the
Capitalist Industrial Revolution
Serfs connected to aristocracy or lords who own the land
and make the serfs work the land
o All humans have agency
o Possible because of a certain ideology (whether you accept,
reject or are in between)
o Throughout history under feudalism, there have been protests,
rebellion, serfs have questioned the social structure were
They thought about the world differently
o Protest, resistance, repression, rebellion –Feh Reolutio.
o SOCIAL CHANGE: The French Revolution
Capitalists vs. okig lass; IDEOLOGY: “oial oilit; oe’s
position not by birthright
Without social structure, no capitalism
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If relationship ignored between working class and capitalist,
concept of capitalism is not explained
People’s lies otolled  soial stutue opletel
VI. Response to Dramatic Social Change:
Romantic conservative reaction
The Romantic-Conservatives: Bonald, de Maistre
o Catholic thinkers who are upset at what happened because
these thinkers lost a lot of privileges and power
o Views OPPOSITE of social contract
Cannot calculate society over time
Element of being human disappears
o See community as stable and organic community community
that had an understanding
o Negative reaction
o What they saw as tradition was replaced
o Think humans are confused
o Human life cannot exist without emotions, reasonable
calculation cannot replace this
o Emphasized social continuity
o Called romantic because they are imagining something that
cannot be restored as society has changed so much
o EMOTION as opposed to REASON
Hoo: Citiue of REA“ON ithout ogai ouit of soiet—
soial egieeig
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