•In terms of educational achievement, children do less well, on average,
when they are closely spaces. (less individual time if siblings are close in
age – follow the same routine) (younger child benefits from having a older
more developed sibling and parents with more time)
Consequences of Family Size
•Large sibling groups generally do not do as well at school, on average,
as children from small families. (neither do they do better professionally as
•The concept uses to explain this family size effect is the DILUTION
OF PARENTAL RESOURCES.
oThis means that parents have fewer nonexpendable resources for each
child individually (time, attention, economic etc)
•NEGATIVE: Larger families – learn less + aggressiveness appears. Lack of
group + lack of privacy.
•But of course there are exceptions to this rule – there is no effect on larger
families to Muslim Arabs (as extended family/hamula supports the nuclear
•Advantages to a large family:
oSiblings are more affiliative, more affectionate, good leaders, less prone
to depression or otherwise healthier. They may be less individualist
and more cooperative. (better at sharing)
Child and Adolescent Sibling Relationships
Munn and Dunn (1988) report that brothers and sisters hose
personalities are compatible or complementary experience a more harmonious
relationship that those who are temperamentally incompatible.
Older and Younger Siblings
•Found that it was the older child’s personality that more strongly affected the
distribution of power in the relationship.
•Agreeability in the older child is a predictors of harmony.