SOC275H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Hidden Curriculum, Malala Yousafzai, Masculinity
ProfessorHae Yeon Choo
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SOC275H5 LECTURE 5: The Gendered Classroom: Formal Education and the Hidden
Second Shift and the Sleepover:
•Common household formation in Canada: Both husband and wife work outside home.
Once both men and women come back home, it is mostly women who take on the
responsibility of productive labour at home.
•The issue is that women are extremely fatigue because they are handling both paid
work and housework.
•There are many households where division of labor is common.
•In a single-parent household, when it comes to siblings, it’s usually the daughter that
takes on the household work.
•Participating of men in household tends to result to longer martial relationship. Women
appreciate men who do housework, as it was a sign of love.
•The drastic difference between U.S and Netherland is teen pregnancy, abortion and
birth, where each category is higher in the U.S.
•The Question: Why do American and Dutch parents have different attitudes about teens
•Would you let teenager’s boy/girlfriend sleep over? American parents responded: “Not
under my roof.” Dutch parents: “Yes as long as it’s a long term relationship.”
•Both countries have different views on teen sexuality and child rearing practices:
dramatized (U.S) vs. normalized (Dutch).
•Dutch believe that teens having sex is part of life and development of individual. They
believe that it is better to keep close their child and his/her partner close to home. They
have a harmony where one needs to care about each other. They have more control
over what their teenagers are doing.
•In the U.S. parents believe that kids cannot make formal sexual decisions because of
History of blocked opportunity for women in Education:
•Until the 19th century, most Canadian children, boys and girls, received very little formal
education. – Education institution was not yet established fully.
•Since the 19th century, formal education has historically been limited by sex and class:
for upper-class boys and men.
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•At the time, the idea of being educated was powerfully linked to the idea of being
•Teaching imperial manhood: British civilization, Christian morality, healthy bodies. –
teaching men how to have healthy bodies, manhood, playing British sports. Women
were not part of this. Women were not allowed to enter University of Toronto until 1884.
– Women required writing an entrance exam to enter university. HOWEVER, they were
not allowed to attend lectures because it was invalid for both men and women to sit
together during lecture.
•Virginia Woolf stated: ‘A woman must have money and a room of her own.’
•Malala Yousafzai: Continuing fights for Girl’s Education in Northern Pakistan.
What should girls and women learn?
•Early phase: Education for their “proper sphere” and not for employment. We are
educating women to be better housewife, instead of paid labor in the 1980s. Girls were
discouraged from pursuing difficult courses required, for example, for university
•Anxieties about co-ed and women’s colleges.
•1900: 10% of Canadian undergraduates were women; by 1920, 25%, by 1980s, more
than 50%. Women college enrollment is higher than men.
Gender and Higher Education:
•It is less about gender when it comes to university, it’s more about social class (if your
parents did not attend university, it is more likely you will not go to university).
•Women now constitute majority of students on college campuses
•But social class, rather than gender or race, is still the determining factor of going to
•Persisting gender segregation in majors; men still continue to outnumber women in
elite universities and doctoral/professional programs.
•Higher educational premium: when someone graduates, there is an earning
difference between attending university or high school. For women; as compared to
their high school graduate counterparts (men), women with university degrees earn
55% more, while men are 17% more.
•There are jobs for men which do not require university, only training and skills
(plumbing, contracts). These jobs pay decently, unlike women which get paid least.
•Hidden curriculum: refers to covert lessons that school teach, often as means of social
control that are transmitted through informal interactions with both teachers and other
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