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Crime Prevention Through Social Development.doc

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Paula Maurutto

SOC316 July 25th Megan’s Law – Ron’s article - everyone is suspicious – by not being suspicious, you are suspicious - target everyone you can – the community has a right to know – over-breadth - community must do the work themselves - shift in blame – from the state to you o you have the information, you should be taking precaution yourself - no sex offender is assumed to be a zero-risk offender - 5 academic sources - 8-10 pages - Methodologies of Crime Prevention – recap - generally these programs are developed by 1-2 people that have done research - results posted that don’t line up with conclusions - how long are the effects maintained? – is this generalizable to other populations - what are they measuring and how do they decide to measure that o what about shoplifting? – broken windows/zero tolerance  how do you quantify quality of life – what is the quality of life – what is disorder - are the measurements blackboxed? – don’t post results/calculations – how did they come to those conclusions? - the law of unintended consequences – does it do what it’s supposed to do o what else will/did happen o what are the social implications – atmosphere of distrust – ex. metal detectors - is the fear of the problem justified o child abductions – generally committed by people you know o we fear the lurking stranger, but is that justified? Crime Prevention through Social Development (CPSD) - very broad approach to crime prevention – big changes - proactive - focus on social conditions that give rise to crime - many factors linked to crime are social or economic in nature o alcohol, substance, poverty, abuse o target these factors that make people engage in criminality - uses programmes and services in education, social housing, health and social services to fight crime o ex. day cares, subsidies for food (nutrition programs) - can reduce offending by targeting the risk factors that give rise to crime - and by creating bonds The Roots of Youth Violence (2009) 1. examine violence involving youth and understand where it is coming from (its roots) 2. recommend how the province can move forward to create opportunities for youth to maximize their potential and make schools and neighbourhoods safer and healthier places for youth to flourish a. not just about neighbour safety, but also about public health b. health in schools – linking the idea of safety to health c. core finding: “neither the breadth nor the depth of the roots is taken into account in shaping public policy in Ontario”(p. 2) Broad Recommendations - meaningfully engage youth, communities, leaders, faith-based groups, neighbourhoods, police and social services agencies in developing common outcomes and objectives o common outcomes and objectives – put them all on the same table o police is only one aspect – they are no longer the expert – sole resource - improve coordination in planning and delivering programs o make some broad common objective between multi agencies o governments, communities, and the private sector – solutions need to involve all parties – theme of partnership o communities are still active/responsibilized - ongoing methods of evaluation to consistently monitor and re-monitor and re-evaluate o like an audit - talking about a small segment of youth violence o not about the causes, but the risk factors o not causal o A does not specifically mean B will happen  poverty does not CAUSE crime – but leads the roots towards it Roots of the Immediate Risk Factors 1. Poverty - poverty does not directly cause violent crime o there are protective factors but they are too little to counteract the effects of poverty - A: relative deprivation o excluded from the minimum conditions of normal living in Ontario can lead to feelings of alienation o when young people feel alienated from social – they are likely on this path of immediate risk factors for violence o RD: youth can see themselves as victims of an uncaring society o RD: belief that they have no real stake or future in that society - B: concentration of poverty o ghettoization: poor are forced to live in functionally segregated parts of the cities  growing trend in bigger urban cities (ex Toronto) - un-integrated communities – homogenous group o high levels of transient population are problematic  in and out, people don’t live there for a long time o can happen because of:  erosion of middle class  withdrawal of governmental and social housing  cost of living is going up – increase in rental and housing costs o transient into low income areas - these communities do have strong community networks and relations - but it needs to be built upon with economic integration o trying to get away from simplistic explanations - C: circumstance of poverty o Services and facilities that most of us take for grated are not locally available or inaccessible  many areas don’t have a chance for the positive protective factors to develop – no programs available o poor who live in more economically integrated can face same deprivation when:  cant afford user fees  cultural barriers  or lack of time to get their child to these services 2. Racism - the racialization of poverty - racism when combined with poverty the “greatest connects to the issues faced by the review” - most structures to confront racism no longer exist o ex. special committees o racism leads to those feelings of alienation and exclusion - racism is one of the central conditions that can produce the immediate risk factors for violence - race has nothing to do with violence o no one race is inherently more violent than another 3. Impact of Community Design - isolation o sense of exclusion o creating urban islands – affordable housing was generally clustered together – very few amenities within walking distance o people from young people who lived in priority neighbourhoods looked at downtow
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