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Lecture 12

WGS250H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Prevailing Wage, Neoliberalism, Intersectionality

Women and Gender Studies
Course Code
Karen Kus

of 6
Lecture 12 (last lecture): Transnational Families
Exam Jam in IB 245
Exam Outline
oThere will be essay questions in addition to the short answer ones (20 marks and you pick ½
oWhen you are writing a short answer questions don’t assume she knows what she’s talking about
o15 MC and 15 true and false
oGreater focus on the second half
oDomestic violence and everything under it, the slides don’t say much it’s the discussions in class
that cover a lot for domestic violence
oList key concepts from the readings, link it to other readings, what was the author trying to say
Construct a reading outline that focuses on key concepts
Some of the readings from the syllabus are not included so go over the list
Use other readings to support to help with your analysis
Migration and Families
oDiasporic culture- bring home with you
You bring pieces of your own culture, can’t be stripped of it
You kind of create your own community in the same place
Ex: china town
It’s like you bring that home with us
You still practice your culture just in a new place
oAcculturation and assimilation
Acculturation: you accustom to the culture you moved to but you still carry your culture
with you (from where you moved)
Like you all speak English but still speak polish for example
Sort of part of the whole
Assimilation: strip away your identity entirely, you assimilate to the majority culture and
you completely get rid of your culture
Don’t want your accent anymore for example
You don’t want people to associate the culture you came from with you
You blend in to be one
oThe melting pot
You no longer have that distinct taste
oProcess of migration, adjustment to new cultural standards, settlement
Learning into the new culture, some people experience a culture shock
Some people never get out of this process
Education environment
oMigrating with family members- not always possible
Refugees can’t migrate with their families
Sometimes you’re entirely on your own
This is when you have to create you own support network, don’t have any other choice
oCreating networks of support (Chp 29)
Migration Discourses
oGender and Migration
Traditional work roles
Women are more likely to take up child care
Economic dependence reinforces myth (ch 29)
find more resources at
find more resources at
Myth: that women are economically dependent
oLoss of economic power – unemployment
Systematic marginalization
It is hard to find a job even for Canadian residents let alone the immigrants
Even when your education is recognized from a different country
oThis is systematic marginalization bc they don’t recognize another
country’s education system
oRacial Discrimination
Eliminated with point system (ch 28)
Chinese head tax will not be on the exam
Class discrimination remains
If you can afford to migrate here then you can
oSo class discrimination
Labour Force and child care
oChildcare is scarcely available and affordable
oDivision of labour within most households is not equal
oInflexible work arrangements
Employers less likely to accommodate
oChildcare perceive as a ‘private’ matter according to the state
This is initiated by the state
If you have children this is your personal matter, that’s your problem, we are not
going to support you
oSolution … hire help
Transnational Domestic care
oGendered work and intersectionality
oPrecarious employment
Neoliberalism (pay less and extract more)
It is a factor of this
We moved from capitalism to neo
You have a lot of part time jobs
You need credentials, so you need an education
So it ties in with neo economy
It ties into globalization which is to pay less an extract more
oWe want more for the dollar
oLimiting work, more profit
Own their labour
Our economy has more private sector jobs
Less benefits, less chances of getting full time work
Also ties in at a global scale, less opportunities to people in 3rd world countries
Effects migrate worksers and women in families
oHow are domestic workers affected
Globalization in the Home
oInternational care taking work and the global economy
oTransnational work as ‘flexible’ labour
You can let them go when you want
oClass relations – more profit for the rich (neo)
oRacialized economic exploitation
oNational citizenship as ‘naturally’ hierarchal
find more resources at
find more resources at
oLegal protection from labour exploitation:
Immigration and Refugee protection Act
(a) to permit Canada to pursue the max social, cultural and economic benefits of
b) to fulfill Canada’s international legal obligations with respect to refugees and affirm
Canada’s commitment to international efforts to provide assistance to those in need of
Many fear this though bc they don’t want to deal with discrimination or being deported
Systematic Racism
oCheap labour
oLabour force displacement
oEconomic equality
oNational citizenship as naturally hierarchal
Understand the slide title’s link to diaspora
Social Reproduction
oCaring labour- everyday maintenance
24 hours job, if the baby wakes up in the middle of the night
oAssumes women’s relationship to the home
oFeminization of labour- gendered work
Reproduces gender norms with gendered jobs for migrant workers
oPrivatized and devalued
Think about the role one is playing as a domestic migrant worker
Reproducing the gendered norms
Transnational Mothering
oRegulates women’s sexuality, reproduction and motherhood
Women who take on these roles as domestic migrant workers, they don’t necessarily have
the right to have their own children bc they won’t be allowed to or supported to care for
oRight to motherhood – working overseas
oRole as mother to employers’ children
These women leave their kids and don’t even get to see their children grow up
Very rarely employers allow them to bring their children
So they live vicariously as mothers
Domestic migrant workers are likely not to raise their own children
Live in Caregiver Program Ontario
oProvide care on a full-time basis (min 30 hours per week)
oEmployers must apply under the Stream for Lower-skilled Occupations
Temporary foreign workers can be hired for a max of 24 months, ‘ifthere’s a shortage of
permanent residents or Canadian citizens
oTo be eligible for permanent residency, live-in care givers have up to 4 years to complete their
employment requirements
oOntario (find this live in care giver info online)(chart)
Prevailing wage: 10.86, $11 from June 2014
Max hours: 48 hours a week
Deduction from min wage cannot exceed
$31.70/week for food
find more resources at
find more resources at