Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
UTSC (30,000)
AFSA02 (10)
sdgsg (3)
Lecture 3

AFSA02 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Somite, Paraxial Mesoderm, Smooth Muscle Tissue


Department
African Studies
Course Code
AFSA02
Professor
sdgsg
Lecture
3

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
4.
Primaryandsecondaryneurulationresultintheformationoftheneuraltube
→whichwillresultintheformationofthebrainandspinalcord
6.
Primitivestreakisanalogoustoblastoporeinamphibianegg
Neuralfoldsstartclosingtowardhead
7.
Constrictionandbulgesformtodifferentiatetheforebrain,midbrain,andhindbrainregions
Primaryvesiclesgiverisetosecondaryvesicles
9.
Differentialgeneexpressionresultsinformationofdifferentcellterritories
→cellsofdifferentterritoriesexpressuniquetranscriptionfactors
10.
Somites,presentoneithersideoftheneuraltube,arealsodependentonHoxgenecomplexes
Hoxgenecomplexesallowsforsegmentationofthebody
→factorsthataffect:environment,morphogeneticfactors(i.e.concentrationgradients)
11.
Neuraltubeismadeupofmultipotentprogenitorneuroepithelialcells
Overlapofdifferenttranscriptionfactorsratiosareimportant
12.
*don’tmemorizeallofthetranscriptionfactors
13.
Differenttfsfromthenotochordandepidermiswillinducedifferentdifferentiationpatterns
*TGFbetafamily
14.
Concentrationgradients,aswellasthetimeofexposure,induceparticulardifferentiation
OverlapofPax6andNkx6.1=motorneurons
Shhisamorphogenwhichlikelycontrolstranscriptionofthesefactors
→worksviathehedgehogpathway
15.

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Donornotochordinducedsecondarymotorneuronregion,whichinducedasecondaryfloor
plate
→developedstructuresadjacenttothenotochordundernormalcircumstances
Roleofsonichedgehog?
16.
NMPcellscoulddevelopintocellsofspinalcordorcellsofmesoderm(→muscles)
DependentonTGFbetaandhedgehogsignallingpathways
17.
Synapticplasticity:
>learning:formingmoreneuronalconnectionsstrengtheningofcircuits
>stopusingcircuits:degradation
→dependentongrowthfactors,signallingmolecules,etc.
18.
2.Neuralcrestcellsendupattheneuralfoldapex
3.Delamination:cellsarecomingapart,sothat:
4.Theycanmigratetodifferentregionsoftheembryo
19.
Neuralcrestcellscanformallofthefollowing
21.
i.e.Sox,celladhesionmolecules(cadherins,adherens)
i.e.SnailproteinisinhibitoryforNcadherinandSox2
→Sox2reciprocallyinhibitsSnail2
→willfacilitatedelaminationandmigration
Cellscanmigratesinglyorasgroups
GTPasefamilyproteinsareinvolved(i.e.RhoA)
→cytoskeletalrearrangement
Cellsingleorgroupmigrationdependson:
>celladhesionmolecules
23.
*don’tmemorizethetranscriptionfactorsandsignalingpathways
Expressionofmelanocyteswillinfluenceskincolour
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version